2 Reform Movements Learning Objectives Explain how political and religious trends (___________), including the Second Great Awakening, inspired reform movements.Describe the impact of movements for temperance and for the reform of mental health care and prisons.Explain the impact of movements for the reform of education and care for the disabled.
3 Reform Movements Key Terms Social reform – an organized attempt to improve what is unjust or imperfect in society.”Predestination – the decree of God by which certain souls are foreordained to salvation.Second Great Awakening – a widespread religious movement in the United States in the early 1800s led by Methodist and Baptists preachersRevivals – a large outdoor religious meetingDebtors – a person who cannot pay money he or she owestemperance movement – the campaign against alcohol consumption (Use)
4 An Era of ReformThe period between 1815 and 1860 is sometimes known as the Reform Era in the United States, because there were so many movements for social reform during this period. Social reform is an organized attempt to improve what is unjust or imperfect in society. The impulse toward social reform had political, social, and religious causes.
5 An Era of Reform Political Ideals Lead to Reform During the Jackson Era more people are allowed to voteProperty requirements are dropped by most statesMany states offer universal suffrage for adult white malesSocial Conditions Call for ReformSlavery was being banned in many northern statesBritain and other European countries outlaw slavery altogether during the early 1800sThe Second Great Awakening and Its CausesArguments by great religious thinkers such as Charles Grandison FinneyDemocratic spirit of the Jacksonian Era
6 An Era of ReformAnalyze Charts: Based on the information in the chart, how did the reform movement reflect American culture in the early 1800s?
7 An Era of ReformDuring the Second Great Awakening, preachers like ae the these camp meetings stressed the ability to save one’s soul through action. Identify Central Ideas: How did this teaching influence reform movements in the 1800s?
8 Social Reform Movements The emphasis the Second Great Awakening placed on improving society inspired many Americans. Women often played a leading role in these reform movements. These Americans launched a number of reform movements, with far-reaching effects on prisons, care of the disabled, education, and attitudes toward slavery.
9 Social Reform Movements Reforming Care of the Disabled – One of the most vigorous social reformers was Dorothea DixIn 1841, Dix visited a jail for women near Boston. She was outraged to discover that some of the prisoners were not criminals, but mentally ill.Dix went on to inspect jails as far away as Louisiana and Illinois. Her reports persuaded most legislatures to treat the mentally ill as patients, not criminals.
10 Impact of Prison Reform Dix also joined a growing movement to improve conditions in prisons.Five out of six people in northern jails were debtors,Men, women, and children were often crammed together in cold, damp rooms.Dix and others called for changes in the prison system.As a result, some states built prisons with only one or two inmates to a cell.Cruel punishments were banned, and people convicted of minor crimes received shorter sentences.Slowly, states stopped treating debtors as criminals.
11 The Impact of the Temperance Movement Alcohol abuse was widespread in the early 1800s.At political rallies, weddings, and funerals, men, women, and sometimes even children drank heavily.The temperance movement, a campaign against alcohol abuse, took shape in the late 1820s. Women often took a leading role in the battle.They knew that “demon rum” could lead to the physical abuse of wives and children and the breakup of families.Some gains were made as Maine and other states banned the sale of alcohol in the 1850sMost states; however, repealed the “Maine Laws”The temperance crusade would gain new strength in the late 1800s.
12 The Impact of Educational Reform In 1800, few American children attended school.Massachusetts was the only state that required free public schools supported by the community.Teachers were poorly trained and ill paid. Students of all ages crowded together in a single room.As more men won the right to vote, reformers acted to improve education. They argued that a republic required educated citizens.In this engraving from the mid-1800s, students in a one-room schoolhouse recite poetry as their teacher listens.
13 The Impact of Educational Reform Education Reform Gives Rise to Public SchoolsExpanding Education for African AmericansReforming Education for People With Disabilities
14 Quiz: An Era of ReformLeaders of the Second Great Awakening differed from earlier American Protestants in their emphasis on the power ofA. love.B. faith.C. free will.D. obedience.
15 Quiz: Social Reform Movements Dorothea Dix's reports about the treatment received by the mentally ill held in jail persuaded legislatures toA. release them.B. move them to warmer cells.C. forbid beatings and cruelty.D. treat them as patients, not criminals.
16 Quiz: The Impact of Educational Reform How were schools in Massachusetts supported in 1800?A. by feesB. by taxesC. by donationsD. by charitable foundations