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C18: An Era of Reform. C18.2 The Spirit of Reform.

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Presentation on theme: "C18: An Era of Reform. C18.2 The Spirit of Reform."— Presentation transcript:

1 C18: An Era of Reform

2 C18.2 The Spirit of Reform

3 Second Great Awakening religious movement Leader – Charles Finney (preacher)

4 Beliefs: Everyone can gain forgiveness Do good works Build heaven on Earth

5 Achievements got people working to improve society inspired some to oppose slavery

6 Transcendentalism

7 Leaders of Transcendentalism Ralph Waldo EmersonHenry David Thoreau

8 Beliefs people have unlimited potential can “transcend” (go beyond) logical thinking trust your emotions and intuition question society’s rules do not conform

9 Accomplishments created model communities (utopian societies) – shared labor – lived together – no competition Example: Brook Farm, MA

10 C18.3 Reforming the Treatment of Prisoners and the Mentally Ill

11 Leader - Dorothea Dix

12 Problems prisoners in chains some locked in cages children jailed with adults debtors put in prison mentally ill locked up, beaten

13 Beliefs prisoners should be treated better separate children and adults keep debtors out of prisons treat the mentally ill, don’t punish

14 Achievements Removed debtors from prisons Special justice system for children Outlawed cruel punishment Hospitals for the mentally ill

15 C18.4 Improving Education

16 Leader - Horace Mann “The Father of American Public Schools”

17 Problems Few children attended school Teachers had little education, poorly paid Less education for girls African Americans banned from most schools

18 Beliefs make education available education helps children escape poverty, be good citizens

19 Achievements NY set up elementary schools in all towns MA paid taxes to improve schools, teachers’ pay, training 1850: most white kids in North and West went to school 1837: Oberlin College admitted women

20 C18.5 Abolition (fighting slavery)

21 Abolitionists (abolition leaders) QuakersWilliam Lloyd Garrison

22 Abolitionists Frederick Douglass

23 Abolitionists Angelina & Sarah GrimkeSojourner Truth

24 Problems People supported slavery for cheap cotton Slavery was cruel Abolitionists disagreed on how to end slavery

25 Beliefs slavery didn’t fit land of the free radical abolitionists wanted slaves to rebel others said end slavery peacefully moderates said give slaveholders time to adjust to no slaves

26 Partial Achievement: Slavery ended in the North but not in the South.

27 C18.6-7: Women’s Rights

28 Leaders Lucretia MottElizabeth Cady Stanton

29 Leaders Lucy StoneElizabeth Blackwell

30 Leaders Frederick DouglassSojourner Truth

31 Susan B. Anthony

32 Problems Women couldn’t vote, hold public office Money & property controlled by men Couldn’t speak publicly Banned from most jobs, colleges Husbands could beat wives

33 Beliefs women should vote equal treatment equal opportunities

34 Achievements Seneca Falls Convention, NY, 1848 wrote “Declaration of Sentiments” created women’s rights movement NY gave women control of property, wages MA & IN passed divorce laws Elizabeth Blackwell set up a hospital & medical school



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