Presentation on theme: "Ch. 14 The Age of Reform : Section One: Social Reform 1 The Reforming Spirit, p. 415-417 -Henry David Thoreau - ideals and freedom for all - changes in."— Presentation transcript:
Ch. 14 The Age of Reform : Section One: Social Reform 1 The Reforming Spirit, p. 415-417 -Henry David Thoreau - ideals and freedom for all - changes in religion, politics, education, art, and literature. -Utopias, communities based on a perfect society. -Robert Owen = New Harmony, Indiana - Shakers - Mormons -The Religious Influence - Second Great Awakening in early 1800’s - Revivals, religious camp meetings - Charles Finney - Increased church membership
Ch. 14 The Age of Reform : Section One: Social Reform 2 War Against Alcohol -Alcohol abuse wide spread. - Religious leaders led the reform. - Lynn Beecher, Connecticut - Blamed alcohol for poverty, break-up of families, crime, & insanity. -temperance, drinking little or no alcohol. - (1826) American Society for the Promotion of Temperance. - revival-style rallies for temperance movement. - (1851) Maine banned manufacturer and sale of alcohol. - Other states passed similar laws. - However, many Americans resented these laws. - Temperance movement in reemerge in early -1900s.
Ch. 14 The Age of Reform : Section One: Social Reform 3 Reforming Education -Early 1800s only NE provided free elementary education. -In other areas parents often had to pay for schools for the poor-pride kept them from doing. -Horace Mann, Mass. Lawyer on Board of Ed. In 1837. Lengthened the school year to 6 months, made curriculum improvements, doubled teacher salaries, & developed better teacher training. -(1839) Mass. Founded nation’s 1 st state-supported normal school, a school for training H.S. graduates as teachers. Other states followed suit.
Ch. 14 The Age of Reform : Section One: Social Reform 4 Education for Some -By 1850s most states accepted 3 basic principles: 1. free schools supported by taxes, 2. teachers should be trained, 3. children should be required to attend. -Problems at first: poorly funded, teachers lacked training, people were against compulsory attendance. - Females received limited educations and their parents often kept them at home because of the belief that they should be wives & mothers. -When in school they studied music or needle- work rather than the core classes like math, science, and history. -In the West settlers lived far apart so it was difficult to have schools.
Ch. 14 The Age of Reform : Section One: Social Reform 5 Higher Education -During the age of reform many new colleges & universities began, but only for men. -Many religions also began colleges: like Amherst & Holy Cross in Mass. and Trinity and Wesleyan in Conn. -Oberlin College founded in 1833 admitted both women and AAs. -Mary Lyon in Mass. opened Mount Holyoke, the 1 st permanent women’s college. -First college for AAs was Ashmun Institute which later became Lincoln University (Penn.) in 1854.
Ch. 14 The Age of Reform : Section One: Social Reform 6 People With Special Needs -Thomas Gallaudet developed a method to educate hearing impaired people. He opened the Hartford School for the Deaf (Conn.) 1817. -Dr. Samuel Gridley Howe helped those who were visually impaired. He opened the Perkins Institute, in Boston. -Dorothea Dix began trying to help people in prisons in 1841. Found some lived in inhumane conditions and some were mentally ill. Cultural Trends -Age of reform influenced literature and art as well. Artists and writers wrote about new ideas.
Ch. 14 The Age of Reform : Section One: Social Reform 7 - Transcendentalists stressed the relationship humans and nature. Margaret Fuller, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Henry David Thoreau. - Fuller supported women’s rights. - Emerson wrote essays and poems encouraging people to listen to their inner consciences and to break the bonds of prejudice. -Thoreau believed in civil disobedience-refusing to obey laws he thought were unjust. Went to jail in 1846 rather than pay a tax that supported the Mexican War. -Others were Henry Wadsworth Longfellow and Walt Whitman wrote poems, stories, and narratives. -Emily Dickinson wrote simple and deeply per- sonal poems. - Harriet B. Stowe wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin.