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American Reform 1820-1860 Chapter 18 vocab/people Second Great Awakening Transcendentalism Public Schools Abolitionists Declaration of Sentiments Grievance:

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Presentation on theme: "American Reform 1820-1860 Chapter 18 vocab/people Second Great Awakening Transcendentalism Public Schools Abolitionists Declaration of Sentiments Grievance:"— Presentation transcript:

1 American Reform Chapter 18 vocab/people Second Great Awakening Transcendentalism Public Schools Abolitionists Declaration of Sentiments Grievance: a complaint against an unfair condition Harriet Tubman Frederick Douglass Sojourner Truth Seneca Falls Convention William Lloyd Garrison Laura Bridgman: the first deaf and blind student to receive a formal education. Grimke Sisters Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton

2 Introduction Between 1820 and 1860, a wide variety of reform improvements sprang up to improve conditions in the US In the 1830’s and the 1840’s reformers became more active in calling for an end to slavery The abolitionist movement helped spark a new reform movement that sought equality for women.

3 18.2Religious Ideals inspire reform The Second Great Awakening: religious movement that swept America in the early 1800’s Leader: Charles Grandison Finney Believed in free will rather than predestination( already decided by God). Taught individuals that they could choose to save their souls by their own actions.

4 Focus: Monday April 11, 2011 Leaders like Finney held revivals- huge outdoor meetings. Finney-“Save yourself and you can save the world.” How do you think leaders like Charles G. Finney helped to start the reform movements of the 19 th century?

5 18.3Hospital and Prison Reform Dorothea Dix- social reformer and activist for prisoners and the mentally ill she visited her first prison Improved conditions in prison systems Cruel punishments were banned, people convicted of minor crimes received shorter sentences. Debtors ( people who could not pay $ they owed) were no longer treated as criminals

6 The Temperance Movement ( women’s rights) Campaign against alcohol abuse began in late 1820’s. Women took leading roles because drinking could lead to wife beating, child abuse and the break up of families.

7 Improving Education Horace Mann- Massachusetts reformer of public education. Became head of Mass. Board of education in In 1800 few children attended school. Teachers were poorly trained. Students of all ages crowded together in one room. NY took the lead in improving education. In 1814, the state passed a law requiring local governments to set up tax- supported schools

8 Education Reform Cont. Horace Mann- Under his leadership Mass. Built new schools, raised teacher’s pay, and opened 3 colleges to train teachers.

9 Education for African Americans AA had little chance to attend school. A few cities like NYC and Boston, set up separate schools for black students. However, they received less money then white schools. Despite obstacles, some AA men went on to attend private colleges such as, Harvard Dartmouth, and Oberlin st college for AA in Penn.

10 Educating people with disabilities 1817 Thomas Gallaudet set up a school for the deaf in Hartford, Connecticut. Samuel Gridley Howe founded the first American school for the blind in One of Howe’s students: *Laura Bridgman, was the first deaf and blind student to receive a formal education.

11 Focus: Wednesday April 14th Women of the 19 th century led very restrictive lives. Answer true false to the following statements below about women's rights in the 1800’s. 1.She is paid the same as a man for doing the same job. 2.The money she earns belongs to her husband. 3.She cannot vote, so she has no way to change laws. 4.Her husband can legally whip her. 5.She keeps her own property when she gets married. 6.She is scorned and shunned by society if she gets a divorce. 7.If she leaves her husband she usually gets custody of her children. 8.The Constitution guarantees her equal rights with men. 9.She cannot serve on a jury, and often she cannot testify in court.

12 Opposing Slavery American Colonization Society: group that proposed to end slavery by setting up an independent colony in Africa for freed slaves. David Walker: Abolitionist who encouraged enslaved African Americans to free themselves by what ever means necessary.

13 Frederick Douglass: Well known AA abolitionist who lectured and published an anti-slavery newspaper called “ The North Star.” William Lloyd Garrison: outspoken white abolitionist believed slavery should end immediately. The Liberator: Garrison’s antislavery newspaper

14 Grimke sisters: Abolitionists who gave public lectures even though many people objected to women speaking out in public. Underground railroad: Network of abolitionists who secretly helped slaves escape to freedom in the North and Canada. Harriet Tubman: UR “conductor” who led more than 300 slaves to freedom

15 Activity Write a speech to be delivered by Frederick Douglass,William Lloyd Garrison, or the Grimke sisters explaining their beliefs about the need for the abolition of slavery. Prepare to share your speech if time allows

16 A Call for Women’s Rights Sojourner Truth: Former slave who was one of the most effective speakers for women’s rights Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott: Abolitionists who became an influential advocate for women’s rights. Seneca Falls Convention: Meeting in NY which drew attention to the problems women faced

17 Emma Willard: Educator who opened a high school for girls to study math and physics Elizabeth Blackwell: 1 st women in the US to earn a medical degree; helped found the nation’s 1 st medical school for women. Prudence Crandall: Began school for AA girls. Continued to teach despite rocks being thrown through windows

18 Focus Questions: What rights did women lack in the early 1800’s? Why did Mott and Stanton organize a women’s rights convention? How did reformers change education for women? What do you think the term “redress” means? What about “grievances”?

19 Answers Q:What rights did women lack in the early 1800’s? * Vote *Hold office *Property and wages earned belonged to husband *No legal protection from beatings or abuse from husbands

20 Answers Q:Why did Mott and Stanton organize a women’s rights convention? *To draw attention to the difficulties women faced and to educate men about these issues.

21 Answers Q:How did reformers change education for women? *Opened high schools for women *Started 1 st women’s college in the US Q: What do you think the term “redress” means? What about “grievances”? *Redress-correction of an unfair condition *Grievance- a complaint against an unfair condition

22 Page 599 in the New Nation text: Read Life and Times of Frederick Douglas and answer questions Page 600 read the Declaration of Sentiments and answer questions


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