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Major Transformations in Human Society Domestication, Agriculture, Industry, Information.

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Presentation on theme: "Major Transformations in Human Society Domestication, Agriculture, Industry, Information."— Presentation transcript:

1 Major Transformations in Human Society Domestication, Agriculture, Industry, Information

2 Hunting and Gathering Societies Hunting and gathering societies relied on readily available plants and hunted game for their subsistence. Hunting and gathering societies relied on readily available plants and hunted game for their subsistence. These societies were: These societies were: Small (about 40 members) Small (about 40 members) Nomadic Nomadic Had little or no division of labor Had little or no division of labor

3 1. The Domestication Revolution Domestication of plants and animals for food purposes led to the first major transformation in human society. It resulted in: Domestication of plants and animals for food purposes led to the first major transformation in human society. It resulted in: Horticultural societies Horticultural societies Pastoral societies Pastoral societies

4 Social Organization Domestication was the first successful effort by people to use social organization: Domestication was the first successful effort by people to use social organization: To gain greater control over the production of food To gain greater control over the production of food To improve their lives. To improve their lives.

5 Dependable Food Supply The availability for the first time in human history of a dependable food supply unleashed a whole chain of events that changed society forever. The availability for the first time in human history of a dependable food supply unleashed a whole chain of events that changed society forever.

6 More dependable food supply More dependable food supply Larger societies Larger societies Food surplus Food surplus Division of labor Division of labor Trade Accumulation of valued goods Accumulation of valued goods Accumulation of valued goods Accumulation of valued goods Feuds and wars over possessions Feuds and wars over possessions Slavery Inequality increased Inequality increased Wealth became hereditary Wealth became hereditary Power became concentrated Power became concentrated Domestication: Chain of Events

7 Larger Societies The more dependable food supply made it possible to support larger societies. The more dependable food supply made it possible to support larger societies. Chain of Events

8 Food Surplus For the first time in human history, food surpluses became common. For the first time in human history, food surpluses became common. Chain of Events

9 Division of Labor Food surpluses freed some workers to do other forms of work, such as crafts. Food surpluses freed some workers to do other forms of work, such as crafts. Chain of Events

10 Trade Surplus food and crafts were traded with others. Surplus food and crafts were traded with others. Chain of Events

11 Accumulation of Valued Goods Durable goods could now be saved and some people accumulated more than others. Durable goods could now be saved and some people accumulated more than others. Chain of Events

12 Feuds and Wars Over Possessions People now had possessions worth fighting over. People now had possessions worth fighting over. Chain of Events

13 Slavery Captives from battles were forced to do less appealing work. Captives from battles were forced to do less appealing work. Chain of Events

14 Inequality Increased Some people accumulated much over time while others accumulated little. Some people accumulated much over time while others accumulated little. Chain of Events

15 Wealth Became Hereditary The wealthy wanted to pass their benefits on to their children. The wealthy wanted to pass their benefits on to their children. Chain of Events

16 Power Became Concentrated Wealth and power became concentrated in the hands of a few and chiefs, kings, and feudal society emerged. Wealth and power became concentrated in the hands of a few and chiefs, kings, and feudal society emerged. Chain of Events

17 Pastoral Societies Pastoral societies domesti- cated animals and raised them for food in pastures. Pastoral societies domesti- cated animals and raised them for food in pastures. These societies: These societies: Developed where there was not enough rainfall to grow crops. Developed where there was not enough rainfall to grow crops. Were usually nomadic, moving on after the animals had exhausted the food supply. Were usually nomadic, moving on after the animals had exhausted the food supply.

18 Horticultural Societies Horticultural societies planted crops in small gardens for subsistence, without the use of plows or more advanced technology. Horticultural societies planted crops in small gardens for subsistence, without the use of plows or more advanced technology. These societies: These societies: Required a climate that was suitable for growing crops Required a climate that was suitable for growing crops Established permanent settlements. Established permanent settlements.

19 2. The Agricultural Revolution Large-scale agricultural production led to the second major transform- ation in human society. Large-scale agricultural production led to the second major transform- ation in human society. This era, resulting in agrarian societies, is often called the "dawn of civilization." This era, resulting in agrarian societies, is often called the "dawn of civilization." Inventions included the plow, the wheel, writing, and numbers Inventions included the plow, the wheel, writing, and numbers

20 Agriculture: Chain of Events Plows pulled by animals Plows pulled by animals Larger food surplus Larger food surplus Greater division of labor Greater division of labor During this period, stratification became a major feature of social life. An elite gained control of surplus resources and defended their position with arms. This centralization of power and resources eventually led to the development of the state as the rich and powerful developed the institution of the state to further consolidate their gains. Elite control of valued goods Elite control of valued goods Elite control of valued goods Elite control of valued goods Elite defense of position with arms Elite defense of position with arms Social stratification Social stratification Centralization of power Centralization of power

21 Agrarian Societies Agrarian societies are based on large-scale agricultural production made possible by plows pulled by animals. Agrarian societies are based on large-scale agricultural production made possible by plows pulled by animals. These societies: These societies: Are more efficient than earlier societies Are more efficient than earlier societies Have a huge food surplus Have a huge food surplus Have a complex division of labor Have a complex division of labor Permit the accumulation of wealth by the few Permit the accumulation of wealth by the few Involve considerable inequality. Involve considerable inequality.

22 3. The Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution involved a dramatic change in the nature of production: The Industrial Revolution involved a dramatic change in the nature of production: Machines replaced tools Machines replaced tools Steam and other energy sources replaced human or animal power Steam and other energy sources replaced human or animal power Unskilled workers replaced skilled workers Unskilled workers replaced skilled workers Work that had been performed in the home by family members was now performed in factories with the help of machines. Work that had been performed in the home by family members was now performed in factories with the help of machines.

23 Machines driven by fuels Machines driven by fuels Population increase: Population increase: rural to urban shift rural to urban shift Larger surpluses: food & mfgd goods Larger surpluses: food & mfgd goods Division of labor: unskilled/skilled Division of labor: unskilled/skilled Increased trade: food & mfgd goods Increased trade: food & mfgd goods Widespread distribution of goods Widespread distribution of goods Widespread distribution of goods Widespread distribution of goods Class conflict: power v. rights Class conflict: power v. rights Low wages: Low wages: slave-like labor slave-like labor Greater inequality: Greater inequality: capital v. labor capital v. labor Wealth concentrated: Wealth concentrated: rich v. poor rich v. poor Power concentration: Power concentration: capitalists & state capitalists & state Industry: Chain of Events

24 Industrial Societies Industrial societies rely heavily on machines powered by fuels for the production of goods. Industrial societies rely heavily on machines powered by fuels for the production of goods. These societies: These societies: Are extremely efficient Are extremely efficient Produce large surpluses of food & manufactured goods Produce large surpluses of food & manufactured goods Involve substantial inequality Involve substantial inequality The breakup of agricultural- based feudal societies caused people to seek employment in the cities, creating a labor surplus resulting in extremely low wages. The breakup of agricultural- based feudal societies caused people to seek employment in the cities, creating a labor surplus resulting in extremely low wages.

25 4. The Information Revolution The Information Revolution involves a dramatic shift from manufacturing and agriculture to service industries. The Information Revolution involves a dramatic shift from manufacturing and agriculture to service industries. The information superhigh- way, satellite dishes, and cellular phones are changing: The information superhigh- way, satellite dishes, and cellular phones are changing: How families spend their time How families spend their time The kind of work we do The kind of work we do Many other aspects of our lives Many other aspects of our lives

26 Postindustrial Societies Postindustrial societies are dominated by: Postindustrial societies are dominated by: Information Information Service industries (e.g., government, research, education, health, sales, law, banking) Service industries (e.g., government, research, education, health, sales, law, banking) High technology High technology It is still too early to identify and understand all the ramifications this new kind of society will have for social life. It is still too early to identify and understand all the ramifications this new kind of society will have for social life.

27 Sources Sociology Timeline Sociology Timeline The Great Transition The Great Transition Exploration: Consequences of the Revolution Exploration: Consequences of the Revolution


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