Presentation on theme: "Society Changes over time Chapter 5 Sociology. Pre-Industrial Society Hunter-gatherer –Small nomadic groups –Few material goods –Family is the only institution."— Presentation transcript:
Society Changes over time Chapter 5 Sociology
Pre-Industrial Society Hunter-gatherer –Small nomadic groups –Few material goods –Family is the only institution –Division of labor based on sex and age –Male and female roles equally important Horticultural –Subsistence growing of plants –More permanent settlements led to larger societies Pastoral –Raising and caring for animals for food –Long term permanent settlements –Social inequalities develop –Status difference develops between men and women Agricultural –Subsistence farming using plows and animals –More people able to engage in noneconomic endeavors –Cities are built –Family ties remain important but government replaces family as guiding force –Social classes emerge –Monetary systems replace bartering
Industrial Society Agriculture based on profit Mechanization replaces human and animal power Society becomes dependent on science and technology to produce its basic goods and services Urbanization occurs Emergence of growing middle class Role of family changes based on working class or Middle Class status
Durkheim vs Tönnies According to Emile Durkheim Mechanical Solidarity exists in Pre-Industrial Society –Consensus of beliefs, norms, values –Strong social pressure to conform –Dependence on family and tradition Organic Solidarity exists in Industrial Society –Members depend on a variety of people to fulfill their needs –Complex specialization makes members interdependent According to Ferdinand Tönnies Pre-industrial societies are based on tradition, kinship and close social ties Industrial societies have weak family ties, are based on competition and impersonal relationships.
Post-Industrial Society Labor force is majority service oriented White collar employment replaces blue collar work Technological knowledge is key – Heavy reliance on computers Rise in crime and social disorder A variety of social norms and values emerge