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Greek Philosophy World History - Libertyville HS.

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Presentation on theme: "Greek Philosophy World History - Libertyville HS."— Presentation transcript:

1 Greek Philosophy World History - Libertyville HS

2 What is philosophy? Literally means “Lover of Wisdom” Attempt to explain & describe world around us rationally or logically Difference between philosophy & religion: religion involves notion of God(s) and faith

3 Socrates (470-399 BC) Athenian philosopher Beliefs –All people should try to do good –People who failed to do good were either ignorant or evil –One has an obligation to disobey a bad command –Believed in virtue as a key characteristic –Advocated republics led by a philosopher-King

4 Life of Socrates Lived during Peloponnesian War, in which he fought Traveled Greece as a wandering philosopher Taught in exchange, for food / clothing Sentenced to death by Athenian democracy –“Corrupting Athenian youth” –He had upset powerful people –Sentenced to death by his own hand – drank hemlock (poison)

5 Plato (428-347 BC) Devoted student of Socrates After his death, Plato traveled the known world (Italy, Sicily, Egypt) teaching in style of Socrates Returned to Athens and founded school outside of city – the Academy –Taught there for rest of his life –Academy continued until 529 AD, when it was closed by Roman Emperor; considered a threat to spread of Christianity

6 Plato’s Beliefs Wrote and expanded upon Socrates’ teaching Wrote The Republic –Showed an idealized form of government led by philosopher king –Explicitly rejected Athenian democracy, b/c so few were fit to rule Also wrote about conflict between nature and nurture His writings were treasured by Eastern RE, Muslims

7 Aristotle (384-322 BC) Studied with Plato at the Academy After Plato’s death, he taught kids of several royal families Invited to teach Alexander of Macedon –Taught him for 5 years –Had great influence on Alexander’s thinking Upon Alexander’s elevation to throne, Aristotle returned to Greece to found the Lyceum

8 Aristotle’s Teaching Wrote about everything from logic / reasoning to physical sciences –Focused on balancing between competing bad impulses (vices) to find virtue –Advocated continuous good behavior rather than specific good acts –Also emphasized situational ethics (what’s good at one time might not be in another)

9 Influence of Aristotle Most influential ancient Greek philosopher on Western thought –Considered “The Philosopher” by medieval western scholars –Also had profound influence on Muslim philosophers His ideas and methodology were basis of Scientific Method Arabic Aristotle teaching (R)

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