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Greek Philosophy and History

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1 Greek Philosophy and History
Chapter 5, Section 2

2 Greek Philosophers Philosophy – “love of wisdom”.
Led to the study of history, political science, science, and math. Philosophers – believed the human mind could understand everything. Many were teachers

3 Pythagoras taught his pupils that the universe followed the same laws that governed music and numbers. Believed that all relationships in the world could be expressed in numbers. Pythagorean Theorem Determines the length of the sides of a triangle A2 + B2 = C2

4 The Sophists Professional teachers in ancient Greece
Believed students should use their time to improve themselves Taught how to win an argument and make good speeches Did not believe that gods/goddesses influenced people Rejected the idea of absolute right and wrong Believed that what was right for one person, may be wrong for another

5 Socrates Critic of the Sophists
Athenian sculptor – true love was philosophy No writings left Learned from his student’s writings Believed that an absolute truth existed & all real knowledge was within each person

6 Socratic method Asked pointed questions to force his pupils to use their reason and to see things for themselves. Athenian leaders felt threatened by the Socratic method 399 B.C. – Athenian leaders accused Socrates of teaching young Athenians to rebel against the state. Jury convicted him – sentenced to death Drank poison - died

7 Student of Socrates Republic- based on life in Athens People divided into 3 social groups Top – philosopher-kings – ruled using logic and wisdom Middle- Warriors – defended the state Bottom – rest of the people – driven by desire, not wisdom or courage.

8 Plato believe women should have equal rights – same education and chance to do the same jobs
Plato also established a school in Athens – the Academy

9 Wrote more than 200 books – govt. planets. stars.
Plato’s best student Wrote more than 200 books – govt. planets. stars. Lyceum – school opened in 335 B.C. Taught the “golden mean” Idea that a person should do nothing in excess Use your senses to make observations.

10 Government divided into 3 types:
Politics Government divided into 3 types: Govt. by 1 person monarch (king/queen), or a tyrant Govt. by a few people aristocracy or oligarchy Run by the rich Govt. by many people Democracy Run by the poor

11 Mixture of oligarchy and democracy
Aristotle’s ideas shaped European/American govts. US – tried to create a mixture of govt. that balanced the different types Aristotle identified.

12 Greek Historians History is the study of the human past
Herodotus – wrote the history of the Persian Wars. Tried to separate fact from legend. Thucydides – considered the greatest historian in the ancient world Fought and wrote about the Peloponnesian War. Saw war and politics as the activities of human beings, not gods. Also stressed the importance of having accurate facts.

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