Presentation on theme: "Mastering Standard SS7H1 The student will analyze continuity and change in Africa leading to the 21 st century. a. Explain how the European partitioning."— Presentation transcript:
Mastering Standard SS7H1 The student will analyze continuity and change in Africa leading to the 21 st century. a. Explain how the European partitioning across Africa contributed to conflict, civil war, and artificial political boundaries. b. Explain how nationalism led to independence in South Africa, Kenya, and Nigeria. c. Explain the creation and end of apartheid in South Africa and the roles of Nelson Mandela and F. W. deKlerk. d. Explain the impact of the Pan-African movement.
SS7H1a ► Why did Europe partition (divide) Africa? The Europeans wanted to control Africa’s land, resources (raw materials), and people. This was also called the “Scramble for Africa” or the “Race for Africa”. The Europeans could get the raw materials cheaply (through cheap labor), make a finished product, and sell the finished product for an enormous profit. (Ex. Cotton)
SS7H1a The scramble began in the 1880s. During the Berlin Conference (1884- 1885) rules were set (by the Europeans) for the colonization of Africa. By 1914, European countries controlled all of Africa except Liberia and Ethiopia.
SS7H1a ► When the Europeans partitioned Africa, did they consider tribal boundaries? NO! The Europeans divided Africa according to minerals and did not consider the people of Africa.
SS7H1a ► What problems do you think this created? Tribal conflicts Civil wars Artificial political boundaries Unstable governments
SS7H1d ► Pan-African Movement developed after World War II by people of African descent living in Britain, the United States, and the West Indies two objectives – ► end European control of Africa ► Africa to be a homeland for all people of African descent took many years for most African colonies to gain independence – some countries achieved independence peacefully others through armed struggle Now known as the African Union
SS7H1b ► Independence in Kenya Originally colony of Germany but at the end of World War I, it was ceded to the British. Kenyans were sent to fight Japan in World War II. Reasoned that if they could fight and die for Britain, they deserved to vote and have their own land. In the late 1940s Kenyans began to push for independence. In the 1950s, the protests turned violent. Finally in 1957, the British began to give in to Kenyans demands. Kenya became independent in 1963.
SS7H1b ► Independence in Nigeria In the early 1800s, the British government outlawed slave trade. In 1914, Nigeria became the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria (controlled by the British). Nigerians began demanding representation in the British colonial government in the 1920s. By the 1940s, Nigeria was divided into 3 regions and each region had representation in the colonial government. In 1960, the United Kingdom granted Nigeria independence. Civil war broke out in 1967. In the late 1990s, the civil wars ended and Nigeria has a stable government.
SS7H1b ► Independence in South Africa Great Britain was granted South Africa as a colony in 1814. Boers (original French, German, and Dutch settlers) resented the British and moved to the interior of South Africa. The Boers discovered diamonds and gold and the British once again moved into Boer territory. This created tension and eventually led to the South African War where the Boers were defeated. The Union of South Africa was created as a self- governing country within the British Empire. BUT power was held by the white community.
SS7H1c ► Apartheid in South Africa The South African government introduced a series of laws that separated white and nonwhite South Africans. This separation was known as “apartheid”. Apartheid governed EVERY aspect of life in South Africa. In response to apartheid, black African leaders founded the African National Congress (ANC). Apartheid led to white domination in a predominantly black society.
SS7H1c By the 1950s, black South Africans were actively opposing the government. Those who opposed the white led government were killed or imprisoned. Nelson Mandela, a black lawyer was one of the opponents. Mandela spent 27 years in prison because of his antigovernment activities. In the 1970s, the United Nations (UN) Security Council approved an embargo against South Africa. International criticism of apartheid continued to grow.
SS7H1c By the mid 1980s many Western countries had imposed economic sanctions against South Africa. In 1989, President F. W. deKlerk enacted reforms that led to the release of political prisoners including Nelson Mandela. Apartheid laws were gradually over turned and in 1994 democratic elections were held. In the 1994 elections, Nelson Mandela became the first black president of South Africa. Because of their work to end apartheid in South Africa, Mandela and deKlerk were awarded the 1993 Nobel Prize for Peace.
Credits ► Georgia Department of Education ► The Land and People of Kenya by Michael Maren ► Countries of the World: South Africa by Mary- Ann Stotko ► World Book Encyclopedia Vol. 14 ► Various internet sites (pictures) ► Unitedstreaming videos GPB