Presentation on theme: "“ Although decolonization in most of Africa and Asia ultimately occurred peacefully, there were notable exceptions. In Palestine, Algeria and South Africa,"— Presentation transcript:
“ Although decolonization in most of Africa and Asia ultimately occurred peacefully, there were notable exceptions. In Palestine, Algeria and South Africa, the presence of European immigrant groups impeded negotiations and created violent conflicts that aborted any peaceful transfer of power - or left the process incomplete… ”
Aim: In what ways was South Africa a “ special case ” of decolonization?
From Colonialism to Apartheid British Imperialism in South Africa Boer War w/ Afrikaners – British economic and political control Independence (1934) – Gradual shift to Afrikaner political control; British economic control (imperialism) 1948: Apartheid laws – modeled after “ Jim Crow ” laws in American South
Key rules of Apartheid Bantustans – 14% of the land set aside for 70% of the population – effectively forced black people to work in white-owned mines and industry Every black person assigned to a tribal homeland – can be removed from other areas at any time Every black person must carry a pass to leave homeland Blacks not allowed to vote All schools segregated No inter-racial marriage
What was the point? Racism legalized Economic subservience of black to white Effectively made black people second class citizens forever
African National Congress Originally modeled after Indian National Congress Differences: –White South Africans much more numerous than the British; and they are not going anywhere –Through first 50 years, things get worse, not better for Black Africans –Many doubt non-violence as a practical means of struggle
Sharpeville Massacre (1960) Protest against pass laws, recently extended to women Led to banning of ANC ANC then decides to engage in armed struggle Mandela became leader of ANC ’ s armed wing
Imprisonment of Mandela Arrested in 1961, on a tip by the CIA to South African government Trial in 1964 Imprisoned until 1990 While in jail, becomes the symbol of the ANC and repression of white government
Armed Struggle Period: it was bloody ANC guerrilla warfare in countryside Illegal “ non-violent ” activity such as strikes, protests Soweto Uprising – started as a protest against a decree that all schooling would be done in Afrikaner – the language of the oppressor State terror against ANC supporters – killings, torture, jailing ANC terror against both police and military; also black collaborators
Sanctions add to pressure on South African government “ Disinvestment ” – US colleges, pension funds refused to invest in companies that did business in South Africa Anti-Apartheid Act (1986) – banned all new American investment and bank loans Double taxation of all profits made by US companies in South Africa (1987)
End of Apartheid Internal disruption, sanctions, flight of investment capital caused economic chaos De Klerk opens negotiations with Mandela, frees him, schedules elections (1989-94) A deal is struck: Black Africans gain political power; White Africans, capitalists keep economic power
Truth and Reconciliation Commission: As leader of South Africa, what would you do? Do you seek justice or reconciliation?
The 'Freedom Charter' ’ … calls for redistribution, but not nationalization, of land; it provides for nationalization of mines, banks, and monopoly industry, because big monopolies are owned by one race only, and without such nationalization racial domination would be perpetuated despite the spread of political power. (1964) Was it a correct choice for the ANC to renounce the Freedom Charter as the “ price ” to end apartheid and gain political power?
BlacksWhites Living in Poverty 56%4% No Schooling22%1.4% High School and above 22%70% Phone in house31%95% Computer1.8%46% Median Income/capita $1803$9769