2 Flour Gives structure to baked products. Gluten is the protein in flour which gives strength and elasticity to batters and doughs.Use the correct type of flour for baking.Not all recipes require the flour to be sifted.How It's Made Flour - YouTube
3 Types of FlourAll-purpose flour-used for all general baking. Made of a blend of hard and soft wheat.Unbleached Flour-flour that has not been bleached.
4 Types of FlourBread Flour-has more gluten than all-purpose flour. Used for making yeast breads and rolls. Used in bread machines.Cake Flour-has less gluten that all-purpose flour. Made from soft winter wheat. Used for making cakes and baked products with delicate textures. You can substitute all-purpose flour for cake flour, use 1 cup minus 2 Tablespoons of all-purpose flour.
5 Types of FlourInstant Blending Flour-flour that has been specially treated to blend easily with liquids. Used for sauces and gravies.Whole Wheat Flour-made by milling the entire kernel of wheat. Must be refrigerated if not used within a few weeks.
6 Types of FlourSelf-Rising Flour-all-purpose flour with baking powder and salt added. You can substitute self-rising flour in recipes that have all-purpose flour, baking powder and salt. If you do not have self-rising flour, you can substitute the following:For each cup of self-rising flour use 1 cup all-purpose flour, 1 ½ tsp. Baking powder and ½ tsp. Salt.
7 Leavening AgentsLeavening Agents produce gases in batters and doughs that make baked products rise.There are several types of leavening agents:AirSteamChemical Leavening AgentsYeast
8 Air Air is trapped in mixtures during beating and stirring. Some products are leavened totally by air.Example: Angel Food Cake
9 Steam Steam is produced in products that contain a high water content. The high temperatures used in baking will cause steamSome products are leavened by steamExample- Cream Puffs
10 Chemical Leavening Agents Baking SodaShould be used with an acidic ingredient.ButtermilkMolassesBrown SugarVinegarHoneyApplesauceCitrus Juice
11 Chemical Leavening Agents Baking PowderContains a dry acid, baking soda and cornstarch.Most are double-acting. They release carbon dioxide when they are moistened and some when they are heated.
12 YeastYeastA microscopic, single-celled plant that produces carbon dioxide gas as it grows. It needs food, liquid, and warm temperatures to grow.Examples: Pizza, Doughnuts, Cinnamon Rolls.
13 Liquids Hydrate the protein and starch in the flour. Moisten ingredientsServe as leavening when they are converted to steam during baking.Examples:Water, milk, buttermilk, fruit juices.
14 Fats Help make baked products tender –tenderizes the gluten. Coats the flour particles.Helps trap air which aids in leavening.Examples-oil, shortening, butter, margarine.
15 Eggs Helps incorporate air into baked products when you beat them. Add color and contributes structure.Helps give dough elasticity and structure.
16 Sweeteners Gives sweetness to baked products. Helps tenderize and helps the crust to brown.In yeast breads, serves as food for the yeast.Examples-sugar, brown sugar, honey, molasses, corn syrup, confectioner’s sugar (powdered sugar)
17 Salt Adds flavor to many baked products. Regulates the action of yeast in baked products.
18 Other IngredientsFlavorings are not essential ingredients but they help make baked products special.SpicesExtractsNutsFruits
19 Types of Mixtures Pour Batters Are thin enough to pour in a steady stream.ExamplesCakesPancakeswaffles
20 Types of Mixtures Drop Batters Are thick, and are usually spooned into pans.ExamplesMuffinsRed Lobster
21 Types of Mixtures Soft Dough Are soft and sticky, but can be touched and handled.ExamplesBiscuitsYeast dough
22 Types of MixturesStiff doughAre firm to the touch.ExamplePie Crust
23 Baking TechniquesUse the size and type of pan specified in the recipe.The cooking time will need to be increased for larger pans and decreased for smaller pans.Most recipes are developed for light-color metal pans.If you used dark, metal pans lower the oven temperature by 25°Grease and flour means to lightly grease a pan and dust it with flour.Cooking spray is an easy method of pan preparation, but it may not work with all products.Lining a pan with paper requires parchment paper.
24 Baking TechniquesIt is important to remember that ingredients are correct. Do not change ingredients amounts or the product will not turn out. (You can still double and half)It is important to preheat the oven so that the rising process occurs properly and the products do not overcook.
26 Quick Breads Quick Breads are quick and easy to make. Most contain basically the same ingredients.All contain gluten, which is formed when the flour is combined with the liquid ingredients and the mixture is stirred or kneaded.If the mixture is mixed or handled too much, the gluten will overdevelop.
28 Examples of Non-Quick Breads CroissantsLoaf breadFrench breadbagelsEnglish muffinsSourdough bread
29 MuffinsThe muffin method- to prepare muffins, waffles, pancakes, popovers and some coffee cakes.
30 Muffin Method1. Combine dry ingredients in a bowl. Make a well in the center of the dry ingredients.
31 Muffin Method2. Combine beaten eggs with milk and melted fat (butter).Add the liquid mixture all at once to the dry mixture and stir the batter just until moistened.
32 Characteristics of Muffins A high quality muffin has a thin, evenly browned crust. The texture is uniform and the crumb is tender and light.*ADD TO THE NOTES
33 Characteristics of Muffins An undermixed muffin has a low volume and a coarse crumb.An overmixed muffin has a peaked top with tunnels on the inside.
34 How to Make PancakesKitchen Basics - How to Make Pancakes Video – 5min.com
35 Biscuits Biscuits have a tender, but crisp crust. There are two kinds of biscuits: rolled and dropped.The biscuit method is used to prepare biscuits.Handle the dough as little as possible.Not all biscuits need to be rolled out. Some biscuits have more liquid and need to be dropped onto the pan or can be used as a dumpling in a stew.
36 Types of BiscuitsRolled biscuits are rolled out to an even thickness and cut out with a biscuit cutter.Drop biscuits contain more liquid than rolled biscuits. This created a batter that is too sticky to handle but which can be dropped from a spoon
37 Biscuit Method Sift together the dry ingredients into a mixing bowl. Using a pastry blender, cut the fat into the dry ingredients until the particles are the size of coarse crumbs.
38 Biscuit Method3. Add the liquid all at once, and stir until the dough forms a ball.
39 Biscuit Method4. Turn the dough onto a lightly floured surface and gently knead 8-10 times.5. Roll into a circle and cut with a biscuit cutter.
40 Characteristics of High Quality Quick Breads BiscuitsMuffinsPancakesTenderLight, FluffyLightly browned topLightly brownNo tunnels or peaksNo clumpsFlakyMoistFluffy and lightPleasing flavor