2 Chemical Reactions A recipe is like a chemical formula. Chemical reactions during baking give the product its final appearance, texture and flavor.
3 What Ingredients do… Flour: Provides proteins and starch that make up the structure of baked products.
4 What Ingredients do… Leavening agents: Make products rise by causing air or gas to be trapped in the mixture.Without these, products would be flat and dense.Ex: baking powder, baking soda, yeast, beaten eggs
5 What Ingredients do… Liquids: Help flour form the structure of the product.Also make possible many of the chemical changes.Ex: water, milk, fruit, yogurt
6 What Ingredients do… Fats & Oils: Make products rich and tender. They also add flavor and help to brown the crust.Ex: butter, margarine, vegetable oil, lard & shortening.
7 What Ingredients do… Sweeteners: Give flavor Also, help crust to brown Ex: sugar, honey, powdered (confectioners) sugar, molasses, brown sugar
8 What Ingredients do… Eggs: Make baked products tender. Add flavor and richness.Can help bind mixtures together so they don’t separate (dough)Beaten eggs may be used as a leavening agent.
9 What Ingredients do… Flavorings: Chocolate, spices, herbs & extracts (vanilla or almond).
10 How Ingredients are Combined… They are combined or mixed in a specific way depending on type of product.Proper mixing helps to give desired texture.
11 How Ingredients are Combined… Mixture is called either dough or batter.Dough: thick enough to be shaped by hand or cut into shapes.Ex: biscuits, cookies, pie crust, some breadsBatter: thin enough to be poured or dropped from a spoon.Ex: pancakes, muffins & cakes.
12 How Leavening Agents Work… Trapped AirAir is trapped when you sift, cream fat & sugar together, beat egg whites, or beat batter.
13 How Leavening Agents Work… Steam:Product must be baked at a high temperature.High heat causes water in mixture to turn to steam & causes it to rise.Ex: cream puffs
14 How Leavening Agents Work… Chemical LeaveningBaking soda & baking powderTHESE ARE DIFFERENT! Read recipes carefully.
15 How Leavening Agents Work… Baking Soda: forms CO2 gas when combined with an acid.Used when using acidic ingredients (buttermilk, yogurt, or citrus).Baking Powder: Combo of baking soda and a dry acid.It forms CO2 when liquid is added.
16 How Leavening Agents Work… Yeast:A microscopic plant that gives off gas as it grows.It reproduces quickly if it has warmth, food (sugar) and moisture.Yeast gives the baked product a distinctive flavor.Why baked yeast bread smells so good!
17 How Leavening Agents Work… Leavening agents work with gluten.As batter or dough is mixed the gluten strengthens to form an elastic mesh.When baked the air/gas is released & gluten stretches to let product rise.As baking continues heat causes proteins and starch to become firm and set.
18 5 tips to Successful Baking 1. Use the exact ingredients called for.2. Measure accurately3. Follow the mixing directions in the recipe4. Use the correct type & size of pan5. Use the correct oven temperature