2Ingredients for Baking Flour- made my milling wheat kernels after the bran and the germ are removed. The remains- the endosperm contain starch and protein which help to give structure to the baked productsGluten develops within flour as it’s mixed with liquid. It forms strong, elastic strands that crisscross in a springy like mesh of cells. As the products bake, the cells trap the air or gas. The cells expand with heated air or gas. It becomes like bubble gum expanded bigger and bigger without bursting
3Kinds of FlourAll-purpose-the most used. It’s blended from hard and soft wheat. Its moderate protein content gives good results for most recipes. Examples: bleached, unbleached, self-risingWhole-wheat-contains the germ and the bran. The bran limits gluten formation so the products tend to me more dense and heavy.Bread- made with hard wheat, unbleached flour, and barley flour. High gluten potential.Cake and pastry- soft wheat products contain less gluten creating baked products with a fine, tender texture.Gluten- high protein flour made from hard wheat. Protein solids are added and starches are removed. It is never used alone and is often added to dough made with low protein flour.
4Liquids are the amount of liquid in relation to the amount of flour affects the qualities of the finished product especially the texture and rising ability.Pour batters- mixed with nearly equal parts liquid and flour which creates a thin. Flowing batter.Examples:Drop batters- a thicker mixture contains twice as much flour to liquid. Usually dropped by the spoonful onto baking pans or sheets.Soft doughs-1 part liquid to 3 parts flour. The dough should be sticky but moldable.Stiff doughs-1 part liquid to 6-8 parts flour. It’s the easiest to handle.
5Leavening agent- a substance that triggers a chemical reaction making baked products grow or rise Air- air is added while mixing, sifting, and beating. The air that is trapped expands and raises the productSteam- The liquid in the baked product is heated and turned into steam. As steam expands and rises, so does the product.Baking Soda-chemical opposite of acid. It reacts with an acidic liquid instantly and expands the product when heated.Baking Powder- combination of baking soda and a dry acid. No acidic liquid is needed for it to work.Yeast- a fungus that thrives on moisture and warmth. Feeds on simple sugars, flour, and sweeteners.
6Fats Add richness and flavor to baked goods Solid fat-Butter, margarine, shorteningYou can generally replace any of these fats with another.Solid is the key word. Unless the recipe says whipped, you cannot replaced a whipped fat with a solid.Oils add moisture to baked products
7Sweeteners- add flavor, tenderness, and browning. Sugar- granulated sugar is refined sucrose crystals which comes from boiling the juice of sugar cane. Confectioners sugar is pulverized granulated sugar with a trace of corn starch. Brown sugar is granulated sugar coated with molasses.Honey- produced by bees from flower nectar.Molasses- when sugar cane is boiled to make sugar, crystallized sugar is removed at different stages. At each stage, a syrup by product is produced and this is syrup.
8Eggs The “multi-taskter” Fats in eggs add flavor, color, richness, and tendernessCertain fats in the yolk create emulsion which binds liquids in the fats to keep the batters from separating.Beating them helps to add air and volume
9Choosing “Oven Temperature Right oven temperature is the key to balance the baking processIf it’s too hot the crust with burn too quicklyIf it’s too low the rising may outpace the structure settingPre-heat the oven- turn the oven to the desired temperature for about 10 minutes before using it.
10Choosing PansDepth is a critical factors. If it’s too deep or too shallow it may cause the same problems as temperature being too high or too low.
11Preparing the Pans Grease and flour Spray with cooking spray Line with paper
13CakesFollowing the recipes specific instructions are important because the ingredient amounts, mixing techniques, and baking times have been developed to work together with scientific precision.Mixing time gives batter enough airLiquid gives it the right consistencyCheck a reliable guide for substitutions
14Shortened Cakes Butter Cakes Contain a solid fat, flour, sugar, eggs, and a liquid. The main leavening agent is baking powder or baking soda.A quality shortened cake has good volume and a moist tender texture.
15Foam CakesAngel Food- fat free cakes, egg whites are beaten with sugar until stiff and glossy. Flour is sifted oven and gently folded in.Sponge- Recipes include egg yolks, which are beaten until pale and thick and then mixed with other liquid ingredients. Flour is sifted and folded into the egg whites and then the two are mixed together.Chiffon-Three separate mixtures. 1. Flour, sugar, baking powder 2. Egg yolks, oil, and liquids 3. Combine both