Presentation on theme: "Baking. Ingredient Basics Common ingredients in all baking: Flour-proteins and starch in flour gives most of the structure Liquid- Usually water or milk."— Presentation transcript:
Ingredient Basics Common ingredients in all baking: Flour-proteins and starch in flour gives most of the structure Liquid- Usually water or milk Leavening agents- causes product to rise Fats- adds tenderness, richness and flavor Sweeteners-provides sweetness and flavor, makes product tender, and helps crust brown Eggs- help form the structure and binds Flavoring- extract flavors, spices, herb, vegetables, nuts
Flour When flour and liquid are mixed together, the gluten in flour develops, or becomes strong and elastic. - Gluten is a protein that affects the texture of a baked product and helps determines the structure - Over mixing will form too much gluten, which will lead to a tough consistency with long narrow tunnels Gluten is like a steel bridge, it provides the support/structure for all other components of the recipe
Leavening Agents Leavening agent is a substance that triggers a chemical action causing a baked product to rise Types of leavening agents: Air: trapped air in mixture expands when the product is heated. Ex: Angel food is mainly leaven by beaten egg whites Steam: As a product bakes, temperature of the water rises and steam is formed. The steam expands which causes product to rise. Ex: Cream puffs
Continue Yeast: is an alive microorganism that produces carbon dioxide gas as it grows. Yeast requires food, liquid and warm temperatures in order to act as a leavening agent Baking soda: leavening agent used with acidic liquids, such as buttermilk, yogurt or sour milk. Baking soda produces carbon dioxide gas when activated by the acidic liquid Baking powder: Made of baking soda and a powered acid (ex: cream of tarter).
Batters and Doughs The amount of liquid in relation to the amount of flour determines whether a mixture is a batter or a dough. Batters have more liquid than doughs.
Batters and Doughs Four kinds of batters and doughs are: 1. Pour batters: thin enough to pour in a steady stream. Ex: Cakes, pancakes, waffles 2. Drop batters: are thick and are usually spooned into pans. Ex: some quick breads and cookies 3. Soft doughs: are soft and sticky but can be touched and handled. Ex: rolled biscuits, yeast breads and rolls, and some cookies start with soft doughs 4. Stiff doughs: are firm to the touch, easy to work with and cut. Ex: Piecrust and some cookies
Quick Breads Quick breads are quick and easy to make. They don’t require kneading and usually use baking powder as a leavening agent. High in carbohydrates, protein, B vitamins and iron. Some quick breads can be high in fat Examples of quick breads are muffins, biscuits, pancakes, corn bread, and fruit breads
Muffin Method Muffin method- Mix all dry ingredients in one bowl and make a well in the center. Mix all liquid ingredients in separate bowl and then pour them in the dry ingredient bowl. Do not over mix Mixture should be lumpy A properly mixed muffin should have a rounded, pebbly top
Loaf Breads Many quick loaf breads are mixed in the same manner as muffins. Usually baked in greased loaf pans If bread contains fruits or nuts, the bottom of the pan should be lined with parchment paper
Biscuits Biscuits are delicate, crisp crust and peels apart in tender layers 2 kinds of biscuits: Rolled- rolling out dough ½ inch thick and cutting with a biscuit cutter. If you do not have a biscuit cutter, use the rim of a water glass. Dropped- dough is dropped with spoon. Contain more liquid and are too sticky to roll. - Both are made using the pastry and biscuit method of mixing
Pastry and Biscuit Methods In the pastry and biscuit method the fat is cut into the flour. To cut in means to mix solid fat and flour using a pastry blender or 2 knives in a cutting direction.
Cookies Cookies vary in texture, shapes, and sizes. There are six basic kinds of cookies: 1. Bar Cookies: Are baked in square or rectangular pans and then cut into bars, squares or diamonds. Textures vary from cakelike to chewy. Ex: Brownies 2. Drop cookies: Made from soft dough that is dropped from teaspoon onto cookie sheet. Ex: Chocolate chip cookie
Cookies continued 3. Rolled cookies: Also called cut-out cookie. Are made from stiff dough that is rolled out and cut out. Ex: Sugar cookies 4. Molded cookies: Are formed by shaping the dough by hand into balls. Can be rolled in nuts or can be flatten with a fork before baking. Ex: Peanut butter cookies
Cookies continued 5. Pressed cookies: Are made by pushing dough through a cookie press, which can create a variety of shapes. Ex: Spritz cookies 6. Sliced cookies: Also called refrigerator cookies. They are made by forming a soft dough into a long roll and refrigerating it. When roll is chilled and firm, cookies are sliced and baked