2Ingredient Basics Common ingredients in all baking: Flour-proteins and starch in flour gives most of the structureLiquid- Usually water or milkLeavening agents- causes product to riseFats- adds tenderness, richness and flavorSweeteners-provides sweetness and flavor, makes product tender, and helps crust brownEggs- help form the structure and bindsFlavoring- extract flavors, spices, herb, vegetables, nuts
3FlourWhen flour and liquid are mixed together, the gluten in flour develops, or becomes strong and elastic.- Gluten is a protein that affects the texture of a baked product and helps determines the structure- Over mixing will form too much gluten, which will lead to a tough consistency with long narrow tunnelsGluten is like a steel bridge, it provides the support/structure for all other components of the recipe
4Leavening AgentsLeavening agent is a substance that triggers a chemical action causing a baked product to riseTypes of leavening agents:Air: trapped air in mixture expands when the product is heated. Ex: Angel food is mainly leaven by beaten egg whitesSteam: As a product bakes, temperature of the water rises and steam is formed. The steam expands which causes product to rise. Ex: Cream puffs
5ContinueYeast: is an alive microorganism that produces carbon dioxide gas as it grows. Yeast requires food, liquid and warm temperatures in order to act as a leavening agentBaking soda: leavening agent used with acidic liquids, such as buttermilk, yogurt or sour milk. Baking soda produces carbon dioxide gas when activated by the acidic liquidBaking powder: Made of baking soda and a powered acid (ex: cream of tarter).
6Batters and DoughsThe amount of liquid in relation to the amount of flour determines whether a mixture is a batter or a dough. Batters have more liquid than doughs.
7Batters and Doughs Four kinds of batters and doughs are: 1. Pour batters: thin enough to pour in a steady stream. Ex: Cakes, pancakes, waffles2. Drop batters: are thick and are usually spooned into pans. Ex: some quick breads and cookies3. Soft doughs: are soft and sticky but can be touched and handled. Ex: rolled biscuits, yeast breads and rolls, and some cookies start with soft doughs4. Stiff doughs: are firm to the touch, easy to work with and cut. Ex: Piecrust and some cookies
8Quick BreadsQuick breads are quick and easy to make. They don’t require kneading and usually use baking powder as a leavening agent.High in carbohydrates, protein, B vitamins and iron. Some quick breads can be high in fatExamples of quick breads are muffins,biscuits, pancakes, corn bread,and fruit breads
9Muffin MethodMuffin method- Mix all dry ingredients in one bowl and make a well in the center. Mix all liquid ingredients in separate bowl and then pour them in the dry ingredient bowl.Do not over mixMixture should be lumpyA properly mixed muffin should have a rounded, pebbly top
10Loaf BreadsMany quick loaf breads are mixed in the same manner as muffins.Usually baked in greased loaf pansIf bread contains fruits ornuts, the bottom of thepan should be lined withparchment paper
11BiscuitsBiscuits are delicate, crisp crust and peels apart in tender layers2 kinds of biscuits:Rolled- rolling out dough ½ inch thick and cutting with a biscuit cutter. If you do not have a biscuit cutter, use the rim of a water glass.Dropped- dough is dropped with spoon. Contain more liquid and are too sticky to roll.- Both are made using the pastry and biscuit method of mixing
12Pastry and Biscuit Methods In the pastry and biscuit method the fat is cut into the flour. To cut in means to mix solid fat and flour using a pastry blender or 2 knives in a cutting direction.
13CookiesCookies vary in texture, shapes, and sizes. There are six basic kinds of cookies:1. Bar Cookies: Are baked in square or rectangular pans and then cut into bars, squares or diamonds. Textures vary from cakelike to chewy. Ex: Brownies2. Drop cookies: Made from soft dough that is dropped from teaspoon onto cookie sheet. Ex: Chocolate chip cookie
14Cookies continued3. Rolled cookies: Also called cut-out cookie. Are made from stiff dough that is rolled out and cut out.Ex: Sugar cookies4. Molded cookies: Are formed by shaping the dough by hand into balls. Can be rolled in nuts or can be flatten with a fork before baking. Ex: Peanut butter cookies
15Cookies continued 5. Pressed cookies: Are made by pushing dough through a cookiepress, which can create a varietyof shapes. Ex: Spritz cookies6. Sliced cookies: Also called refrigerator cookies. They are made by forming a soft dough into a long roll and refrigerating it. When roll is chilled and firm, cookies are sliced and baked