2Quick Breads Batters thin batters are called pour batters pancakespopoverswafflesstiff batters are called drop battersdrop biscuitssome muffinssome cookies
3Doughsshortcakerolled biscuitsrolled cookies and pastry
4Quick Bread Ingredients pg 370 Flour - gives structureall-purpose flourself-rising flour (has leavening agent and salt in it)Leavening Agents – produce gases in batters and doughs which make the products rise, becoming light and porous.baking soda- What gas does it produce and what other ingredients must be present in the recipe for it to work?
5baking powder – What gas does it produce? steam – what products use this as a leavening agent?air – how do you get air into a product?
6Liquids – they hydrate the protein (to form gluten) and starch in flour, they moisten or dissolve ingredients, can be a leavening agent by forming steam.water, milk, fruit juiceseggsfatsFat – serves as a tenderizing agent by coating the flour particles, causing the dough structure to separate into layers
7Eggs – help incorporate air, add color, flavor, and contribute to structure Sugar – gives flavor, has a tenderizing effect, helps crusts brown. In yeast breads, it serves as food for the yeast.Salt – adds flavor. In yeast breads, it regulates the action of the yeast
8Food Science Principles of Preparing Quick Breads Gluten is a protein that gives strength and elasticity to batters and doughs and structure to baked products. When liquid and wheat flour are combined, mixing and kneading help form glutenthink of a piece of bubble gum. As you chew it, it becomes more elastic, and you can blow bubbles, but if you chew it too long, your jaws will start hurting
9If you mix or handle a batter or dough too much, the gluten will overdevelop. This can cause a quick bread to be compact and tough.Different types of flour will form different strengths of gluten. Bread flour forms the strongest gluten structure while cake flour has the most delicate.most baking powders are double-acting, which means that they release some of their carbon dioxide when moistened, but most is released when they are heated.
10Biscuits Describe the biscuit method. List the steps Describe/list the characteristics of a high-quality biscuiteven shape with a smooth, level top and straight sidescrust is an even browninterior is white to creamy whitemoist, fluffy and peels off in layers
11Muffins Describe the muffin method. List the steps. An under-mixed muffin has a low volume and a flat top. The crumb is coarseAn over-mixed muffin has a peaked top and a pale, slick crust. When broken apart, narrow, open areas called tunnels are visible.
12Cream Puffs cream puff failures usually are the result of underbaking. Occasionally, cream puffs will ooze fat during baking. The evaporation of too much liquid can cause this.
13Yeast BreadsThe temperature of the water added to the yeast must be warm ( degrees). If it is too high, it will kill the yeast cells. If the temperature is too low, it can slow or stop yeast activity.Name the different types of yeast and how to use them. pg 377
14Mixing Methods for Yeast Breads Traditional methodOne-Rise MethodMixer MethodBatter Methoduses less flour, so it is thinner than doughvigorous stirring, rather than kneading, helps develop the gluten.
15Food Science Principles of Preparing Yeast Breads Gluten forms the framework of bread. It traps the carbon dioxide produced by the yeast as the dough rises. As the amount of carbon dioxide increases, the dough will rise, giving volume to the bread.
16Kneading Fermentation Punching the Dough Shaping Baking some of the gluten will develop during initial beating, kneading develops most of the gluten. Demonstrate kneadingFermentationyeast acts on the sugars in the bread dough to form alcohol and carbon dioxidePunching the DoughShapingBakingDuring the first few minutes of baking, the dough will rise dramatically. This rapid rising is called oven spring.
17Characteristics of Yeast Bread if you allow bread to rise for too long a time before baking, it may have large, overexpanded cells. The top of the loaf may be sunken with overhanging sides, much like a mushroom. The texture is coarse, and it may be crumble.
18Timesaving Yeast Bread Techniques Cool-Rise Doughs – prepared from recipes that are specially designed to rise slowly in the refrigerator.Refrigerator DoughsFreezer DoughsBread machinesBread baked in a microwave is microwaved on medium power until it is almost done, then put on high power.