Presentation on theme: "Breads Ch 23 FS/T. Quick Breads Batters –thin batters are called pour batters pancakes popovers waffles –stiff batters are called drop batters drop biscuits."— Presentation transcript:
Breads Ch 23 FS/T
Quick Breads Batters –thin batters are called pour batters pancakes popovers waffles –stiff batters are called drop batters drop biscuits some muffins some cookies
Doughs –shortcake –rolled biscuits –rolled cookies and pastry
Quick Bread Ingredients pg 370 Flour - gives structure –all-purpose flour –self-rising flour (has leavening agent and salt in it) Leavening Agents – produce gases in batters and doughs which make the products rise, becoming light and porous. –baking soda- What gas does it produce and what other ingredients must be present in the recipe for it to work?
–baking powder – What gas does it produce? –steam – what products use this as a leavening agent? –air – how do you get air into a product?
Liquids – they hydrate the protein (to form gluten) and starch in flour, they moisten or dissolve ingredients, can be a leavening agent by forming steam. –water, milk, fruit juices –eggs –fats Fat – serves as a tenderizing agent by coating the flour particles, causing the dough structure to separate into layers
Eggs – help incorporate air, add color, flavor, and contribute to structure Sugar – gives flavor, has a tenderizing effect, helps crusts brown. In yeast breads, it serves as food for the yeast. Salt – adds flavor. In yeast breads, it regulates the action of the yeast
Food Science Principles of Preparing Quick Breads Gluten is a protein that gives strength and elasticity to batters and doughs and structure to baked products. When liquid and wheat flour are combined, mixing and kneading help form gluten –think of a piece of bubble gum. As you chew it, it becomes more elastic, and you can blow bubbles, but if you chew it too long, your jaws will start hurting
If you mix or handle a batter or dough too much, the gluten will overdevelop. This can cause a quick bread to be compact and tough. Different types of flour will form different strengths of gluten. Bread flour forms the strongest gluten structure while cake flour has the most delicate. most baking powders are double-acting, which means that they release some of their carbon dioxide when moistened, but most is released when they are heated.
Biscuits Describe the biscuit method. List the steps Describe/list the characteristics of a high-quality biscuit –even shape with a smooth, level top and straight sides –crust is an even brown –interior is white to creamy white –moist, fluffy and peels off in layers
Muffins Describe the muffin method. List the steps. An under-mixed muffin has a low volume and a flat top. The crumb is coarse An over-mixed muffin has a peaked top and a pale, slick crust. When broken apart, narrow, open areas called tunnels are visible.
Cream Puffs cream puff failures usually are the result of underbaking. Occasionally, cream puffs will ooze fat during baking. The evaporation of too much liquid can cause this.
Yeast Breads The temperature of the water added to the yeast must be warm ( degrees). If it is too high, it will kill the yeast cells. If the temperature is too low, it can slow or stop yeast activity. Name the different types of yeast and how to use them. pg 377
Mixing Methods for Yeast Breads Traditional method One-Rise Method Mixer Method Batter Method –uses less flour, so it is thinner than dough –vigorous stirring, rather than kneading, helps develop the gluten.
Food Science Principles of Preparing Yeast Breads Gluten forms the framework of bread. It traps the carbon dioxide produced by the yeast as the dough rises. As the amount of carbon dioxide increases, the dough will rise, giving volume to the bread.
Kneading –some of the gluten will develop during initial beating, kneading develops most of the gluten. Demonstrate kneading Fermentation –yeast acts on the sugars in the bread dough to form alcohol and carbon dioxide Punching the Dough Shaping Baking –During the first few minutes of baking, the dough will rise dramatically. This rapid rising is called oven spring.
Characteristics of Yeast Bread –if you allow bread to rise for too long a time before baking, it may have large, overexpanded cells. The top of the loaf may be sunken with overhanging sides, much like a mushroom. The texture is coarse, and it may be crumble.
Timesaving Yeast Bread Techniques Cool-Rise Doughs – prepared from recipes that are specially designed to rise slowly in the refrigerator. Refrigerator Doughs Freezer Doughs Bread machines Bread baked in a microwave is microwaved on medium power until it is almost done, then put on high power.