3Baking Ingredients... eggs 1. FLAVOR 8. LEAVENING AGENT 5. BINDER 2. TENDERIZER6. ENRICH7. PRESERVE TEXTURE3. COLOR4/15/20172 eggs whites can be substituted for 1 whole egg to reduce fat and calories.
41. FlourProtein and starch in flour accounts for most of the structure in baked goods.The higher the protein content in the flour the more gluten is produced.Cake & pastry flour has the least amount of proteinTYPES OF FLOURBread Flour (strongest)All Purpose Flour (most versatile)Self-Rising Flour (includes baking powder and salt)Cake Flour (Weakest)4/15/2017
52. Liquid Mix with flour to develop gluten. Gluten helps form structure of a baked goodMilk and water are the most common.Milk adds flavor, nutrients and promotes browningButtermilk: tangy flavor, makes the mixture more acidic, determines the kind of leavening agent needed.4/15/2017
6Usually purchased pre-sifted Water and milk are the most common Baking Ingredients...flourUsually purchased pre-sifted+liquidWater and milk are the most commonstructureForms the shape of the product4/15/2017
7Quick-acting leavening agents are used in cakes and cookies. cause the food to "rise"They do this by providing air, steam, or gas.YeastBaking soda is a quick-acting leavening agent. It is only used when acids are present…the most common of which is “cream of tartar”Baking powder is the most common of the quick-acting leavening agents. It is a combination of soda and acid.Quick-acting leavening agents are used in cakes and cookies.4/15/2017
8Leavening agent + moisture + warmth = carbon dioxide bubblesThe bubbles go upward...causing the dough/batter to rise with them!4/15/2017
94. Fat In baked products – add richness and flavor Tenderizing agent The fat coats the flour particles and causes the dough structure to separate into layers.Can be solid or liquid:Solid- shortening, lard, butter, margarineRefrigerate lard, butter & margarineStore shortening & oil at room temperature4/15/2017
10Cooking oils; do not substitute oils for solid fats Baking Ingredients...fats add richness, flavor, and tendernessButter or margarine; do NOT use soft margarines for baking, as they contain added waterSolid shorteningCooking oils; do not substitute oils for solid fats4/15/2017
11FatsButter, margarine and vegetable shortening are all used in baked goods.Butter gives the best flavorButter and margarine are 80% fat, 20% liquid and melt quickly; shortening is 100% fat.Never use reduced fat spreads unless using a recipe designed for a specific spread.4/15/2017
12FatsButter, margarine and vegetable shortening cannot be substituted for each other – use only what the recipe calls for4/15/2017
13Effects of ButterEnhances flavor better than sugar because it coats the taste buds with a flavor enhancer.Butter also tenderizes the baked good so that it has a soft textureThe difference between salted butter and unsalted is the salted preserves better, but gives a slight aftertaste4/15/2017
15Eggs When beaten – they add air to mixture – making it lighter Add flavor, nutrients, richness & color to baked goodsWhen beaten – they add air to mixture – making it lighter4/15/2017
167. SweetenersSugar-adds sweetness and makes product tender. Adds flavor and helps crust brown4/15/2017
17sweetenersMolassesBrown sugar must be packed into the measuring cup. It is an unrefined sugar with a high moisture content.Granulated sugar is the most common sweetener in baking.Powdered sugar is also called confectioners sugar.4/15/2017Honey
188. FlavoringsFruits and nuts add flavor and texture to baked products.Herbs, spices, extracts used in small amounts add flavorExamples of extracts (liquid) lemon, vanilla, almond4/15/2017
24Define: biscuit method, cut in, drop biscuits, kneading, quick breads, rolled biscuits What happens if you work biscuit dough too much?Why roll biscuit dough to an even thickness?What is the thickness to which dough should be rolled?How do you test for doneness?Describe the appearance of biscuits after they have been baked.7. Liquid and fat should he at what temperature when using the quick-mix method?