Presentation on theme: "The Rise of Democratic Ideas"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Rise of Democratic Ideas PrologueImportant ideas that led to modern democracy can be traced back through history
2 The Legacy of Ancient Greece and Rome Cities develop in small fertile valleys(City-states) Each city had own governmentMonarchy-rule by single leaderAristocracy—rule by noble land ownersOligarchy—rule by the wealthy/powerfulDemocracy—rule by people (direct involvement)
3 Ancient GreeceShift from monarchy to democracy led by three important individuals over a period of about 130 years.Political and economic problems forced these leaders to make changes to how government operated and who was considered a citizenCitizenship belonged to wealthy landowning menThis took place in Athens, which had become Greece’s largest city state.The three political leaders who made changes were Solon, Cleisthenes, and Pericles.
4 Solon (594 BCE)Stopped practice of selling people and their family into slavery for not paying debtsEstablished 4 classes of citizens allowing more people to participate in governmentAllowed poor to make decisions on juriesOnly wealthy could be government officialsHis decisions brought compromise between rich and poor during bad timeStopped use of death penalty for minor crimes
5 Cleisthenes (508 BCE)Considered the “founder of Athenian democracy” because of his reformsReorganized the assemblyAllowed citizens to make lawsWeakened power of families and clansCreated political instead of social divisions in city
6 Pericles (461 BC) Ruled during Athens’ “Golden Age” Increased #s of paid government officialsStarted system to pay jurors for their workPoorer citizens could participate in gov’tCreated a direct democracy as citizens created own laws, served on juries and did not elect representatives
7 Greek Philosophers use Reason (300 BC) Several great thinkers (philosophers) made a lasting impact on Athenian law & Western thoughtLogic and reason was used to figure out how world worked, how people thought, and morality2 main principles show Greek respect for human intelligence and allowed democracy to developUniverse is orderly and it operates on unchanging lawsPeople can understand these laws thru use of logic and reason
8 Socrates 469 BCE 399 BCEWanted his students to examine their deep beliefsUsed Q & A (Socratic Method) to probeLooked for flaw in reasoning so students could come to truer understanding of reality“The unexamined life is not worth living”
9 Plato - 427 BCE – 347 BCE Was Socrates greatest student Wrote about how an ideal government should work in The RepublicWanted a philosopher-king to rule
10 Aristotle 384 BCE 322 BCE Plato’s student Wrote about physics, politics, gov’t, ethics and moreStudied astronomy, geology geography, economics, and other sciencesExamined the physical world and human belief, thought, and knowledgeAristotle was more interested in science – considered father of scientific methodtutor of the young prince Alexander, who grew up to be Alexander The Great.opened his own school, the Lyceum (lie-SAY-um).
11 The Legacy of GreeceGreece set lasting standards in politics & Philosophy.Greeks did not rely on superstition or traditional explanations of the world. Instead, they used reason & intelligence to discover predictable patterns that they called “Natural Laws”.The Greeks developed direct democracy in order that citizens could actively participate in political decisions.They were the first to think of 3 branches of governmentLegislative branch – to pass laws.Executive branch – to carry out the laws.Judicial branch – to settle disputes about the laws
12 Rome Rome rose and Greece fell but both had contact with each other Rome evolved from being ruled by kings, many who were brutal, to the establishment of a republic (government where people elected representatives to make laws)Early republic was marked by tension between the patricians (wealthy landowners with political rights/power) and plebeians (farmers, artisans, merchants who could vote but not hold office)
13 The 12 TABLESPlebeians pressure patricians for power and a Written code of laws called 12 TablesLaws written/carved on 12 stone tabletsLaws put on public displayEstablished two new ideas in governmentall free citizens had the right to protection under the lawLaw would be administered fairly
14 Republican Government Separate branches of governmentLegislative—senate and two assembliesJudicial—Court systemExecutive—two consuls (one year) ran army and directed the governmentIn times of crisis, a dictator could be appointed for 6 months. He had absolute power, made laws, and commanded the army.As Rome grew, problems governing developed and an emperor was chosen to rule in 27 BC.
15 Roman LawAs Rome grew, conquered people were exposed to the system of laws that were applied to everyone in the empire. Roman Law was based on reason. We remember Roman Law for several important principles that are valid today.All citizens had the right to equal treatmentA person was considered innocent until proven guilty in courtBurden of proof for crime fell onto the accuserAny unreasonable law could be set aside
16 Justinian’s CodeEmperor Justinian had his legal advisors organize over 1000 years of Roman laws into a manageable system of four partsThe Code—nearly 5000 lawsThe Digest—summary of legal opinions of previous decisionsThe Institutes—Textbook for law studentsThe Novellae—new laws after the codeJustinian’s Code made a huge impact on legal systems across Western Europe and made Roman government “a system of laws, not of men.” US legal code adopted much of what Justinian did.