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The Rise of Democratic Ideas 2015

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1 The Rise of Democratic Ideas 2015
Prologue Notes The Rise of Democratic Ideas 2015

2 Hammurabi's Code of Law One of the earliest Code’s of Law that influences us today.

3 Athens, Greece Democracy: “rule of the People”
Did not want to be ruled by authoritarian rulers Citizens were the men who owned land or that had certain rights Direct democracy: citizens make and pass laws (citizen participation) Pericles made reforms to get poor people to serve in government paid jurors and public officials Three branches of government: Executive Legislative Judicial

4 Rome developed a republic
509 BC set up a republic Citizens had the right to elect leaders, PARTICIPATION Voting of free males Twelve Tables: 451 BC written code of laws Senate: legislative

5 Basics of Roman Law: Equal treatment under the law Innocent until proven guilty Burden of proof rests on the accuser rather than the accused Any law that seems unreasonable or unfair can set aside

6 Code of Justinian, A.D. 528 Today’s laws can be traced back
Codification of Roman Law New (for the time) uniform legal code Impacted all of Western Europe

7 Judeo-Christian Tradition
Judaism (one God) – a dignity and worth of the individual, because each person has the potential to be the savior (a divine spark); combat oppression through community involvement Christianity: Jesus emphasized God’s personal relationship with individuals; equality of all people; combat oppression

8 Judeo-Christian Tradition
Christianity spread through Roman Empire Constantine, Roman Emperor: made Christianity official religion of Rome Diaspora: spreading of Jews throughout the world Pax Romana: Roman Peace…spread Christianity

9 Ten Commandments God gave them to the Jews
Laws dealing with moral and ethical rather than politics

10 Renaissance Renaissance: “rebirth”
Rebirth of old Greece and Roman stuff (democracy) Worth of the individual

11 Reformation To reform the Catholic Church Protested teachings
Emphasis on people reading and understanding God’s word for themselves If a person can think for himself about going to heaven, then he can also think for himself and learn to govern

12 England William the Conqueror, 1066 Start of democratic type stuff
Juries and Common Law (customs & principles established over time) Magna Carta Limits on kings power King cannot tax without consent King cannot raise an army or quarter troops

13 England Habeas Corpus: charge and bring to court; it's in the US Constitution Petition of Right, 1628: against absolute monarchy, important in influencing future constitutions

14 Magna Carta, 1215 Treaty between King John and the barons (nobility)
Major source for English individual rights and liberties 800th anniversary Defined and limited the kings authority Monarchs had to govern according to law, not arbitrarily Declared Rights of “free men” (property holding men) Due process of the law Idea of God Given Rights… US Constitution Monarch could only tax with consent

15 Parliament grows stronger
King had to go through parliament to get taxes passed Petition of Right: 1628 No taxation without consent of Parliament Could not illegally imprison citizens (due process of law) No housing of troops in citizen’s home No army in peacetime

16 Glorious Revolution William and Mary of Orange were invited to be dual monarchs Signed the English Bill of Rights, 1689 Limited monarchy power No martial law No tax without Parliament consent Can’t raise an army in peace time Freedom of speech Influenced colonies Influenced U.S. Bill of Rights

17 Enlightenment Enlightenment: principles of reason and science
At the same time, Age of Exploration, Scientific Revolution Equality and value of all people

18 Enlightenment Philosophers
Hobbes: liked absolute monarchy , but he described social contract (agreement among members of society to submit to a ruler) Locke: people have right to rebel. LIFE, LIBERTY, and PROPERTY Government comes from the people, self- government Natural rights (GOD given)

19 Enlightenment Philosophers
Rousseau: philosopher, “government came from the consent of the governed” advocated democracy… The Social Contract Montesquieu: philosopher “liberty is a natural right”; separation of powers (3 branches)

20 US Constitution It has affected, inspired, and modeled democracy around the world for more than 200 years Representative government Federal system: national and state governments (layers of govt) Checks and balances Separation of powers (3 branches)

21 Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
French Revolution, 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen Democracy is difficult to acheive

22 Most people now think democracy is the best form of government
Modern times Most people now think democracy is the best form of government After the breakup of the Soviet Union, 15 new republics were formed

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