4 Ancient Greece Main contribution: concept of democracy Democracy – “rule of the people”Comes from the Greek words “demos” (people) and “kratos” (rule).Geographic isolation contributed to development of many independent city-states, rather than one central government.Each city-state (polis) consisted of a city and surrounding countryside. (Ex: Athens, Sparta)
5 Case Study: Athens Largest, most powerful city-state C B.C – 683 B.C. – monarchy683 B.C. – aristocracy (rule by few nobles)594 B.C. – the reforms of Solon transformed Greece into a limited democracy by extending citizenship to more people. Still, only about one-tenth were considered “citizens.”508 B.C. – Cleisthenes turned Athens into a full democracy.
6 AthensPericles led Athens from B.C. (the Golden Age of Greece)Increased # of paid public officialsPaid jurorsThese changes allowed even the poor to participate in the governmentHis changes transformed Athens into a true direct democracy.
7 Legacy Greek democracy ended in 338 B.C. when conquered by Macedonia. Important ideas:The Greeks’ respect for human intelligence and the power of human reason led them to choose democracy over authoritarian rule.
8 They were also the first to think of three branches of government Legislative – pass lawsExecutive – carry out the lawsJudicial – interpret laws and settle disputes
10 Ancient RomeMain Contributions: Representative government ( a republic) and a written code of lawsC. 600 B.C. – Rome had a monarchy509 B.C. – the king was overthrown and a republic was established.Form of government where citizens have the right to elect leaders to represent them. (Indirect democracy)
11 The Roman RepublicExecutive Branch – two consuls – commanded army and directed govt (1 year term limits)Legislative BranchSenate: aristocratic branchTwo assemblies: more democratic; included other social classes
12 Roman LawRoman law applied equally to everyone in the empire, even conquered people, regardless of their nationality.451 B.C. – officials made a collection of Roman laws called the Twelve Tables.A.D. 528 – the Emperor Justinian compiled all laws since the Tables.Written laws were VERY important because they established the idea of “ a government of laws, not of men.”
13 Legacy of Rome Summing it up… Idea of a republic Legal and political terms (senate, dictator)Every individual is a citizen of a state rather than the subject of a rulerWritten legal codeLaws are to be applied equally and impartially to ALL citizens
15 Judeo-Christian Tradition These 2 religions taught individual worth, ethical standards, and the need to fight injustice, ideas that had a strong impact on the development of democracy.
16 JudaismMonotheistic religion founded by Abraham and the Hebrews’ covenant with God.Hebrew Scriptures (Old Testament) state that humans are created in God’s image. This = that humans have a God-given dignity.Comparison:Greeks/Romans: humans have dignity because of ability to reasonHebrews (Jews): humans have dignity by simply being a child of God
17 Judaism Also had a written code of laws – Ten Commandments Strong belief that every person has a responsibility to oppose injustice and oppression AND…The community should help those in need
18 ChristianityDerived from the name Christ – which was given to Jesus by his followers“Christos” – Greek word meaning messiah or saviorJesus’ teachings stressed the equality of all human beings“There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is neither male nor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus”Paul, one of Christianity’s first missionaries
19 Legacy of Judaism and Christianity To sum it all up…Ideas that shaped democracy…Duty of the individual/community to fight oppressionWorth of each individualEquality of all people before God
20 The grand irony, however…. Despite what these traditions taught, believed, practiced, they did not always practice it.Greece & Rome—did not allow everyone (slaves, women) to participateWars/violence and slavery have been justified by the Judeo-Christian tradition for 2,000 years.