Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.


Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "FOUNDATIONS OF DEMOCRACY"— Presentation transcript:

The legacy of ancient Greece and Rome Judeo-Christian traditions

2 ESSENTIAL QUESTION How did the cultures of ancient Greece and Rome and the belief systems of Judaism and Christianity lay the foundation for the development of democracy in the modern world?

3 Greece

4 Ancient Greece Main contribution: concept of democracy
Democracy – “rule of the people” Comes from the Greek words “demos” (people) and “kratos” (rule). Geographic isolation contributed to development of many independent city-states, rather than one central government. Each city-state (polis) consisted of a city and surrounding countryside. (Ex: Athens, Sparta)

5 Case Study: Athens Largest, most powerful city-state
C B.C – 683 B.C. – monarchy 683 B.C. – aristocracy (rule by few nobles) 594 B.C. – the reforms of Solon transformed Greece into a limited democracy by extending citizenship to more people. Still, only about one-tenth were considered “citizens.” 508 B.C. – Cleisthenes turned Athens into a full democracy.

6 Athens Pericles led Athens from B.C. (the Golden Age of Greece) Increased # of paid public officials Paid jurors These changes allowed even the poor to participate in the government His changes transformed Athens into a true direct democracy.

7 Legacy Greek democracy ended in 338 B.C. when conquered by Macedonia.
Important ideas: The Greeks’ respect for human intelligence and the power of human reason led them to choose democracy over authoritarian rule.

8 They were also the first to think of three branches of government
Legislative – pass laws Executive – carry out the laws Judicial – interpret laws and settle disputes

9 Rome

10 Ancient Rome Main Contributions: Representative government ( a republic) and a written code of laws C. 600 B.C. – Rome had a monarchy 509 B.C. – the king was overthrown and a republic was established. Form of government where citizens have the right to elect leaders to represent them. (Indirect democracy)

11 The Roman Republic Executive Branch – two consuls – commanded army and directed govt (1 year term limits) Legislative Branch Senate: aristocratic branch Two assemblies: more democratic; included other social classes

12 Roman Law Roman law applied equally to everyone in the empire, even conquered people, regardless of their nationality. 451 B.C. – officials made a collection of Roman laws called the Twelve Tables. A.D. 528 – the Emperor Justinian compiled all laws since the Tables. Written laws were VERY important because they established the idea of “ a government of laws, not of men.”

13 Legacy of Rome Summing it up… Idea of a republic
Legal and political terms (senate, dictator) Every individual is a citizen of a state rather than the subject of a ruler Written legal code Laws are to be applied equally and impartially to ALL citizens

14 Judaism & Christianity

15 Judeo-Christian Tradition
These 2 religions taught individual worth, ethical standards, and the need to fight injustice, ideas that had a strong impact on the development of democracy.

16 Judaism Monotheistic religion founded by Abraham and the Hebrews’ covenant with God. Hebrew Scriptures (Old Testament) state that humans are created in God’s image. This = that humans have a God-given dignity. Comparison: Greeks/Romans: humans have dignity because of ability to reason Hebrews (Jews): humans have dignity by simply being a child of God

17 Judaism Also had a written code of laws – Ten Commandments
Strong belief that every person has a responsibility to oppose injustice and oppression AND… The community should help those in need

18 Christianity Derived from the name Christ – which was given to Jesus by his followers “Christos” – Greek word meaning messiah or savior Jesus’ teachings stressed the equality of all human beings “There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is neither male nor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus” Paul, one of Christianity’s first missionaries

19 Legacy of Judaism and Christianity
To sum it all up… Ideas that shaped democracy… Duty of the individual/community to fight oppression Worth of each individual Equality of all people before God

20 The grand irony, however….
Despite what these traditions taught, believed, practiced, they did not always practice it. Greece & Rome—did not allow everyone (slaves, women) to participate Wars/violence and slavery have been justified by the Judeo-Christian tradition for 2,000 years.


Similar presentations

Ads by Google