2 Words to Knowgovernment - a political system for exercising authority.aristocracy – a government in which power is in the hands of a hereditary ruling class or nobility.citizen – a native of a state or nation with certain rights and privileges.direct democracy – a government controlled by its citizens either directly or through representatives.monarchy – a government in which power is in the hands of a single person.
3 Words to Know continued natural law – patterns and explanations of the world discovered through reason and intelligence; used by the Greeks in place of superstition & traditional explanations of the world.republic – a form of government in which power is in the hands of representatives & leaders elected by the people.senate – in ancient Rome, the supreme governing body, originally made up only of aristocrats.
4 ObjectivesTo identify the different political systems that developed in ancient Greece.To trace changes in the Greek democracy and the flowering of Greek philosophy during the fifth century B.C.To compare and contrast democracy in Athens with that under the Roman republic.To describe the influence of Roman law on government.
5 The World Pacific Ocean Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean Arctic OceanArctic OceanArctic OceanPacific OceanPacific OceanAtlantic OceanIndian OceanSOUTH POLESOUTH POLE
6 Question: How does the past influence the present? Democracy is from the Greek words “demos” meaning people and “kratos” meaning rule or authorityGovernment - a political system for exercising authority.Democracy - a government BY the people.
7 Rise of Democratic Ideas In Greece and Rome Mediterranean SeaAtlantic OceanPacific OceanPacific OceanIndian OceanGreeks 594 B.C.Romans B.C.
9 Direct Democracy - government in which citizens rule directly voting on laws, & other matters affecting the city-state.(Like a town meeting today with the people’s representatives hearing what the people want to say.)Executive Branch President White HouseLegislative Branch Senators & Representatives Capital BuildingJudicial Branch Justices Supreme CourtSeparation of Powers –the assignment of executive, legislative, & judicial powers to different groups of officials in a government (Like the U.S. Government, today)
10 Athenian Rulers and their Reforms Solon(630 – 560 B.C.) increased citizens’ participation in government but it was still a limited democracy.594 B.C., outlawed slavery based on debt and cancelled farmers’ debts, averting a revolution established four classes of citizenship based on wealth instead of heredity also created a new Council of Four Hundred to prepare business for the already existing Council a fairer code of laws the right of citizens to bring charges against wrong- doers.
11 Cleisthenes, the Reformer 508 B.C. Cleisthenes' reforms was felt immediately, revolutionizing all aspects of Athenian life.Everyone was really happy !He wanted to break up the power of the nobles.His laws allowed all citizens to submit laws for debate and passage.He also created the Council of Five Hundred which counseled the assembly.Democracy released unheard of potentials in its citizens and ushered in an age of achievement and prosperity.
15 Athens, Greece – The Parthenon Atop the Acropolis
16 Greek Philosophers (Thinkers) AristotlePlatoSocratesGreek Philosophers (Thinkers)They did not rely on superstition or tradition but used reason and intelligence (logic) to discover predictable patterns they called natural laws.
17 NATURAL LAWSGreek Philosophers based their philosophy on these natural laws:1. The universe (land, sky, sea) is put together in an orderly way and is subject to absolute & unchanging laws.2. People can understand these laws through logic and reason .
18 The Peloponnesian WarB.C.Athens lost....Greece wasweakenedSparta vs. Athens
19 338 B.C.The end of Democracy in Greece and…..……The beginning of a foreign Monarchy.
20 Greeks *Direct democracy *Paying jurors so more people can participate in government*3 branches of government*Written Legal Code*Natural law
25 Roman Law All citizens had the right to equal treatment under the law. A person was considered innocent until proven guilty.The burden of proof rested with the accuser rather than the accused person.Any law that seemed unreasonable or grossly unfair could be set aside.
26 The Roman RepublicRoman aristocrats overthrew the harsh king & set up the new government: the RepublicThe Romans were the first to give us Representative Democracy with their senators.
30 Justinian’s Code even kings were subject to the law. 451 B.C. The Twelve Tablets (the early code): officials collected all Roman lawsA.D Justinian (the new code): all Roman laws since 451 B.C. be collected when completed, consisted of four works The Code which contained all the laws The Digest which is a summary of legal opinions The Novellae, laws passed after 534These established “a government of law, not of men”
32 *Representative democracy Romans*Representative democracy*the Individual is a citizen of the State not just a subject to a ruler.*Written Legal Code*3 branches of government*All citizens had the right to : equal treatment under the law considered innocent until proven guilty burden of proof rested with the accuser*Any law that seemed unreasonable or grossly unfair could be set aside.
33 Rise of Democratic Ideas in Greece and Rome *594 B.C. – In Greece, adult males may attend & present laws for debate in the assembly.*509 B.C. – Romans establish a Republic (representative Government).*508 B.C. – In Greece, the assembly reorganized to limit power of the nobles.*461 B.C. – In Greece, direct democracy introduced to Athens.*A.D. 528 – In Rome, EMPEROR JUSTINIAN authorized a panel to compile a written legal code for all Roman citizens including rulers.*A.D. 533 – Justinian’s Code of Laws (written legal code) completed.
34 Summary: Rise of Democratic Ideas Greece/Rome:democracy (direct & representative)natural laws of the universe (logic, reason, intelligence)limit power of nobleswritten code of lawsseparation of power (3 branches of government)