Presentation on theme: "Roots of Democracy 10.1. Students relate the moral and ethical principles in ancient Greek and Roman philosophy, in Judaism, and in Christianity to the."— Presentation transcript:
Students relate the moral and ethical principles in ancient Greek and Roman philosophy, in Judaism, and in Christianity to the development of Western political thought. Analyze the similarities and differences in Judeo-Christian and Greco-Roman views of law, reason and faith, and duties of the individual. Trace the development of the Western political ideas of the rule of law and illegitimacy of tyranny, using selections from Plato's Republic and Aristotle's Politics. Consider the influence of the U.S. Constitution on political systems in the contemporary world.
Ancient Athens, Greece Direct Democracy Duties of Citizens LegislatureJury Rule of Law & Reason
Direct Democracy Democracy = Rule by the people Direct Democracy = Vote for/against laws not through representatives Citizens make political decisions
Duties of Citizens (individuals) Citizens = Male, 18+, citizen parents Participate in juries, legislature, and law proposals Use Reason
Legislature Solon – Council of 400 Cleisthenes – Council of 500 Pericles – Assembly: Any citizen could attend
Jury Most important duty of a citizen 201-2500 citizen men Randomly selected Decided guilty or innocent and punishment Banish a leader to prevent too much power
Rule of Law and Reason Universe created in an orderly way Universe functions through unchanging laws Man can understand the universe and its laws through reason and logic Foundation for DEMOCRACY
Philosophy Love of Wisdom Observation and Reasoning Ethics and Morality Socrates Socratic Method Plato Aristotle Political ScienceScience & Logic
Sophist Used Persuasion Questioned Accepted Ideas
Socrates “What is the greater good?” “The unexamined life is not worth living” –Important to examine laws, social customs, and religious values. –Socratic Method Loyal to Athens & democracy Tried and convicted for corrupting city youth & not respecting the gods Death by hemlock (poison)
Funny Philosophers –Steve Martin as Socrates Steve Martin as SocratesSteve Martin as Socrates
Plato Student of Socrates The Academy Rational Thought Equality at birth 3 classes: workers, soldiers and philosopher rulers High regulation serves citizens’ best interests
Aristotle Student of Plato Rule of law Government of many Despised tyranny – stood above the law “Golden Mean” Lyceum taught all subjects
Ancient Roman Republic Preserved and added to the Greek ideas of Democratic government Republic Checks on Power Written Codes of Laws
Republic Representative Government = citizens elect leaders to make governmental decisions Indirect Democracy
Checks on Power Senate – Patricians 2 Assemblies – Other classes Veto Dictator – appointed in crisis to have absolute power.
Written Code of Laws “A government of Laws, not men” 12 tables (tablets) –Commoners demand laws be written down –Everyone will have equal access to laws Innocent until proven guilty Burden of proof on the accuser Unreasonable laws could be set aside
Write a Paragraph What is the most important contribution of Greco-Roman civilization(s) on Western Political thought?
Writing in Social Science Always have a thesis/topic sentence that states your claim as fact Support your claim with evidence/facts
No Fluff No “I think, I guess, etc.” No contractions – can’t, won’t, don’t No personal pronouns – I, my, our, you, me, we, etc.
Judaism One God Obedient to God God will protect and provide a homeland
Scriptures Torah = “Instructions” Laws through stories and history Strict moral standard
Contributions Laws enforced by courts Rulers not above the law Support rule of law Individual responsible for moral conduct Faith and obedience to God
Christianity One God Justice, morality & service to others Equality & Dignity
Contributions Foundation of Western culture –Laws –Social Structure –Individual worth –Social services –Free will = respect for choice
Write a Paragraph What are three significant contributions of Judeo-Christian civilization(s) on Western Political thought (Democracy)?
Roots of Democracy GreekRomanJudaismChristianity Direct Democracy Democracy Duty of Citizens to participate in government Citizens to participate in governmentLegislatureJury Rule of Law and Law and Reason ReasonRepublicVeto Checks on Power PowerWritten Code of Code of Laws LawsBasic Moral Law Moral Law Individual responsibility Individual Worth WorthMorally Just Just Community CommunityEqualityHuman Dignity Dignity Service to others others Moral and Ethical Ethical Behavior BehaviorJustice
Do Your Dudes 1 Dude is Greco-Roman 1 Dude is Judeo-Christian on/above each Dude you should write: “Law, Reason and Faith, Duty of the Individual” In each Dude list items unique to that Dude.
Essay What do you consider to be the three most important contributions of the Greco- Roman and Judeo-Christian civilizations in terms of their impact on Western Political thought regarding law, reason/faith, and/or duty of the individual. What do you consider to be the three most important contributions of the Greco- Roman and Judeo-Christian civilizations in terms of their impact on Western Political thought regarding law, reason/faith, and/or duty of the individual.