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The Legacy of Ancient Greece and Rome & Judeo-Christian Tradition

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1 The Legacy of Ancient Greece and Rome & Judeo-Christian Tradition
California State Standard 10.1

2 Why do we need this? The Greeks developed democracy
The Romans added representative government Representation and citizen participation are important features of democratic governments around the world.

3 Terms you should know Government Monarchy Aristocracy Oligarchy
Democracy Direct Democracy Republic Senate Government = a system for controlling society Monarchy = a single person ruled a government Aristocracy = a government ruled by a small group of nobles Oligarchy = a government ruled by a few powerful people Democracy = rule of the people Direct Democracy = citizens rule and make laws directly rather than through representation Republic = form of government in which power rests with citizens who have the right to elect leaders who make governmental decisions Senate = a legislative branch of government

4 Largest and most powerful city state
First democracy Largest and most powerful city state Citizens participated in government Citizens were adult males Nobles elected to rule city state

5 Noted Reformers: Solon and Cleisthenes
Solon: When Athens ran into trouble, he saved the day Reforms Outlawed slavery Established classes of citizenship Council of 400 – prepared business for existing council Cleisthenes Regarded as father of democracy in Athens Tried to balance the rich and the poor All citizens could submit laws for debate and passage Created council of 500 to propose laws and counsel assembly Also to note: Pericles paid public officials and jurors so the poor could be in government

6 Plato Greatest student of Socrates Wrote the Republic
A vision of a perfectly governed society Governed not by rich but by philosopher-kings “Until philosophers are kings, or the kings and princes of this world have the spirit and power of philosophy, and political greatness and wisdom meet in one, and those commoner natures who pursue either to the exclusion of the other are compelled to stand aside, cities will never have rest from their evils, no, nor the human race.” Plato – The Republic

7 Aristotle Student of Plato
Examined the nature of the world and human belief, thought and knowledge Wrote “Politics” “Man is by nature a political animal; it is his nature to live in a state.”

8 The Roman Republic From kingdom to republic
Patricians versus plebeians Twelve Tables First written law code All free citizens had the right to protection of the law and laws would be fairly administered. Like Athens, a government with separate branches Eventually, the republic collapsed due to war and authoritarian rule. Patricians inherited power, plebeians were citizens with the right to vote Plebeian pressure on the patricians gained them political power. A republic is an indirect democracy in contrast to direct democracy where all citizens participate directly in the government.

9 Roman Law All citizens had the right to equal treatment
Innocent until proven guilty Accuser must proved accused guilty Unreasonable laws can be set aside The Code – 5,000 Roman laws

10 Judeo-Christian Tradition
Monotheists Humans are created in G-d’s image Each human being has a divine spark that gives him or her a dignity that can never be taken away. G-d gave human beings more freedom – the ability to choose between good and evil. For the Greeks and the Romans, the individual had dignity because of his or her ability to reason. For the Hebrews, each person had dignity simply by being a child of G-d. Each person was responsible for the choices he or she made. These beliefs led to a new emphasis on the worth of the individual.

11 Jewish Law and Morality
Jews had a written code of laws Ten Commandments The Prophets Leaders and teachers who were messengers of G-d. Attacked war, oppression and greed. “He has told you, O mortal, what is good; and what does the Lord require of you but to do justice, and to love kindness, and to walk humbly with your G-d?” Micah 6:8 Like the Greeks and Romans, they had a code of laws. Focus of laws was on morality and ethics and less on politics. Prophets strengthened Jews’ social conscience.

12 Christianity Jesus of Nazareth
Born a Jew and a Roman subject Public ministry Ideas came from monotheism and Ten Commandments “I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you.” Roman governor in Jerusalem saw him as a threat because some referred to him as the “King of the Jews” Put to death by crucifixion His followers believed him to be the Messiah – Savior (Christos) Paul, the apostle, spread the word of Jesus. He stressed the equality of all human beings – a central belief of democracy.

13 Analyze the similarities and differences in Greco-Roman and Judeo-Christian philosophy

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