2Developments in Europe and the Byzantine Empire Where we last left off…. The Roman Empire was divided into two factions. The Eastern Roman Empire, centered in Constantinople became highly centralized government known as the Byzantine Empire, whereas the west, the empire collapsed entirely, although the religion retained a strong foothold.
3Important points to remember the Byzantine Empire was a lot more centralized and organized than the western empireboth practiced Christianity, though not in the same way
4The Byzantine Empire: The Brief Details The Byzantine Empire was distinct from the Roman Empire….How?Greek languageArchitecture had distinctive domesCulture in general had more in common with Eastern cultures like those of PersiaBrand of Christianity became an entirely separate branch known as Orthodox ChristianityEmperors ruled by absolute authorityEspecially over the economySilk trade (learned from China) they monopolized
5JustinianRuled fromThe Justinian period is remembered for two things….The Justinian Code- a codification of Roman law that kept ancient Roman legal principals aliveFlowering of the arts and sciences, evident in the construction of major buildings and churches. The most notable, Hagia Sophia, an enormous cathedral that still stands today (but now a mosque). They are also remembered for their mastery of mosaic art form they used to decorate the churches.
6But in the WestThe Roman Catholic emperors of the West, regarded the pope as the leader of the Byzantine church, secular rulers headed the church (which, remember, was Orthodox).For centuries the two churches managed to tolerate each other but in time the differences become to great.
7The Disagreed over…….. sacrament of communion whether priest should be allowed to marryuse of local languages in churchGod as trinityPlacement of icons during worship
8In 1054 the pope excommunicated the patriarch of Constantinople, who did the same to the pope. From this point forward, Orthodoxy influenced the East and Roman Catholicism influenced the West. Keep this schism in mind when we get to the Crusades, Christian Europe’s war with the Islamic world; the Byzantine is right in the middle!
9When comparing the two… The point to remember is that in the early centuries of the Middle Ages, the East was more of a secular empire with an official church religion; the West was more of a religious empire with subservient political units.
10Impact of Orthodoxy on Russia: Feast in the East In the ninth century, the Slavic peoples of southeastern Europe and Russia were converted to Christianity by St. Cyril, an Orthodox Christian, who used the Greek alphabet to create the Slavic alphabet. Most of these areas were not part of the Byzantine Empire itself, but were influenced by it.
11When Vladimir, a Russian prince from Kiev, abandoned the original pagan traditions and converted to Christianity, he also considered Islam, Judaism, and Roman Catholicism. Rumor has it…. He chose Christian Orthodoxy because it had no restrictions on when or what he could and could not eat.
12The dominance of Christian Orthodoxy in this region is significant because while western Europe followed one cultural path, eastern Europe followed another, and this had tremendous impact on the developments in Russia.
13The Russian Orthodox Church was aligned with Byzantine but not Roman traditions. So in the near future when the Roman church is reformed the Russian and Greek churches do not. As a result of this and the Mongol invasion (remember we talked about this at the end of chapter 10) Russia became culturally different from the other great powers in Europe, which grew out of the Roman Catholic tradition.
14Meanwhile Out West: The Franks versus the Muslims After the Roman Empire fell apart, due in part to the invasions of Germanic tribes, these tribes settled throughout Western Europe. Most of the tribes converted to Christianity quickly, though politically they continued to run their own shows. They formed alliance and expanded, sometime enough to be considered kingdoms. The most significant of the early kingdoms was the Franks.
15The Franks were a Germanic tribe that united under the leadership of King Clovis in the late fifth century.he converted to Roman Catholicismestablished the capital in Parisempire stretched from present day Germany through Belgium and into Franceafter he died the empire was divided among his sons, influence declined
16Remember Charles Martel- (in your notes earlier chapter 10) led the revolt against Muslim armies in 732 defeated them at the Battle of Tours, not far from Paris. Again, interaction through conflict-
17Martel founded the Carolingian dynasty, tried to reunite the region under his control. When his son Pepin took the reigns, he chose to have a succession certified by the pope, this sent a signal that the empire’s legitimacy rested on the Roman Catholic Church’s approval.
19Pepin’s son Charles, was crowned by the pope in 800 and became known as Charlemagne “Charles the Great”The empire that Charlemagne built would be come to called the Holy Roman Empire upon the coronation of Otto the Great in 962.Important side note- this empire had very little in common w/ the original Roman
20Empire, other than the fact the power was once again centralized and Rome began to think of itself again as a world center.Marked the beginning of Western Europe ambition in terms of empire building, especially among those in the churchRelatively small compared to the Roman Empire
21Under CharlemagneStrong focus was placed on arts and education- great religious bentSociety was structured around feudalism- thus not absolute controlCharlemagne did not levy taxes, he failed to build a strong and united empireAfter Charlemagne’s death and the death of his son Louis… the empire was divided among three grandsons according to the Treaty of Verdun in 843
24The estates were granted to the vassals were called fiefs, and these later became known as manors. Advances in the science of agriculture during this time helped the manors to succeed. One such advantage was the three-field system, centered on the rotation of crops in the three field system. Lords were able to accumulate a food surplus and build on the success.
25This is a big picture idea This is a big picture idea. People were then able to become skilled in specialized ways. Towns and cities, too, began to grow, and eventually, the Middle Ages came to an end.
26Lord was in allegiance to the king but only had direct contact with him when the king called upon him for service. The lord was in charge of the manor. Conflicts did erupt between the feudal lords (this is where the term feud comes from).
27These disputes were highly refined and flowed from the code of chivalry, and honor system that strongly condemned betrayal and promoted mutual respect.
28Landless Women Male dominated system Land equaled power so women were powerlessWomen were regarded as propertyWhen the lord died under the feudal system his land was passed down via primogeniture, to his eldest son.Noblewomen had few rights- though socially elevated. They could inherit a fief, but not rule it. Education was limited to domestic skills.
29Ironically, it Serfs did not have it much better they had to ask permission from the lord. So they were literally tied to the land. Ironically, it was this imprisonment on the land that led the serfs to become highly skilled workers. They learned how to do whatever to make the manor to be self-sufficient.imprisonment on the land that led the serfs to become highly skilled workers. They learned how to do whatever to make the manor to be self-sufficient.
30Rising Middle ClassAs many of the serfs became skilled workers other than farming , Europe slowly started trading with the rest of the world, some skilled craft people started earning extra income. Over time, this chipped away at the social stratification of the manor system. When banking began in Europe towns and cities started gaining momentum. The result was an emergence of a “middle class.” By the eleventh century, western Europe was re-engaging in the world.
31Towns were chartered on the lands controlled by the feudal lords (the charters gave townspeople certain rights) and within the towns, the middle class merchants, or burghers became politically powerful.
32Like their manorial predecessors, the towns had a great deal of independence within the empire but were intrinsically more interdependent than self-sufficient manors of the feudal system. Eventually towns formed alliances, not unlike a city-state structure.One of the most significant alliances, the Hanseatic League, had an economic basis; it controlled trade throughout much of northern Europe.
33Artistic Achievements Some of the great artistic achievements on the Middle Ages were in architectureCathedrals (Romanesque or Gothic style)Designed to draw people closer to God“Flying buttresses” gave support for tall windows and vaulted ceilingsChurch sponsored artistGregorian chants became an intrinsic part of ceremonies
34This Playground Isn’t Big Enough for Two Bullies European contacts with the Muslim world during the Crusades (military campaigns by European Christians during the eleventh through the fourteenth centuries to take over the Holy Land and convert Muslims and non-Christians to Christianity.)
35You’ll recall that in the Middle Ages, the Islamic Empire expanded, and the Moors conquered much of Spain. The Christians felt threatened by the expansion of the Muslims, especially as Islam became entrenched in areas that the Christians identified with historically.
36So, in 1096 C.E. Pope Urban initiated the First Crusade in response to the success of the Seljuk Turks, who took control of the Holy Land (present day Israel and Palestine). The Pope wanted…Jerusalem, the most important city in Christianity, to be in the hands of ChristiansWanted to unite Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church in Constantinople, which had split 50 years earlier
37The crusades set out to… capture several cities, including Antioch, and Jerusalem. However, both cities quickly fell back into the hands of Arabs.
38Through the year 1204, a total of four crusades failed to produce results, and the RCC and EOC separated even further (5 more crusades followed but were not successful in achieving any major result)In the Fourth Crusade the Catholic Church sacked Constantinople and established a short lived Latin Empire
39The Results… The impact on the Holy Land was violence and uncertainty Most of the land remained in the hands of the Muslims Arabs, and the whole mess led to centuries of mistrust and intolerance between Christians and Muslims
40Global Interaction… Big Picture Stuff First, the Crusades were not only motivated by religious beliefs and purposes there were economic and political incentives as well. No doubt there were some who fought for religious reasons but the lure of empire and wealth was a factor for many.
41Second, the death, rape, pillage, and slavery perpetrated in the name of religion was startling. Because the religiously devout are sometimes willing to be martyred for their beliefs, intentional religious expansion can be just as devastating and powerful as a politically driven military invasion.
42Third, and most importantly… Third, and most importantly…. the Crusades led to interaction between cultures that might not otherwise interact. The interaction fueled trade and an exchange of ideas. It also led to western Europe rediscovery of the ancient past, which was preserved by the Byzantine and Islamic Empires. That rediscovery fueled HUGE changes in Europe… the Renaissance.
43In time, people began to question organized religion which of course the church found threatening . This process of reasoning gave rise to heresies, religious beliefs that do not conform to the traditional church doctrine. Many heretics rejected how worldly and wealthy the church had become.
44Another important effect of people thinking more openly was the founding of universities, where men (not women) could study philosophy, law, medicine, and learn from the advances made in the Muslim cultures
45Doubts about the supremacy of religious dogma continued to emerge until the beginning of the thirteenth century when Pope Innocent II issued strict decreed on the church doctrine.
46he was responsible for the sacking the already Christian Constantinople, and declared it a Latin Empire (only lasted about 50 years)heretics and Jews were frequently persecutedCrusade seemed motivated by greed
47Pope Gregory IX set in motion the inquisition, a formal interrogation and persecutions process of heretics.punishment ranged from torture, exile, and executionDue to the power of the church at the time, it was sometimes referred to as the Universal Church or Church Militant
48Later in the thirteenth century, Thomas Aquinas, a famous Christian realist made significant inroads in altering Christian thought. He wrote Summa Theologica, which outlined his view that faith and reason are not in conflict, but are both gifts from God and each can be used to enhance each other. His writings had a major impact on Christian thought.