Continuation of Eastern portion of Roman Empire (West fell 476CE to Germanic invasions) Ruled by caesaropapist ruler (combining secular and religious authority in one person)
West = breakdown of Roman society, law, custom, language Byzantine East = retain Roman laws, customs, urban-centered life, and Greek language Both = Christian, BUT Great Schism – 1054; final division between Eastern Orthodox (led by patriarch) and Roman Catholic (led by pope) Christianity
Invaded by Abbasid Islamic forces (from late 600s CE) By 1085, territory shrank even more Catholic crusaders Turkic Muslim invaders The end came when conquered in 1453 by Ottoman Turks (Central Asians converted to Islam)
Population reduced by 25% Lack of centralization in gov’t – strong elites took control of smaller areas Christianity provided limited unity throughout Europe Pope becomes most important figure in the West New Germanic rulers of disunited kingdoms tried to retain some aspects of Rome (they admired it!) Germanic people became the “dominant peoples”
Europe does briefly experience some unity under the rule of Charlemagne but it’s short-lived (800 CE; aka “Charles the Great”) Later, attempted under the Holy Roman Empire (limited to modern day Germany; unsuccessful) What can be inferred about the Roman Catholic Pope from the religious icon to the left?
Using your BYOD, look up the dictionary definition of this word and write it in your notes. Based on your reading of Chapter 10 (specifically, pages 436-437), write a brief paragraph explaining how feudalism worked in Western Europe in the third-wave era. Consider especially feudalism’s emphasis on social hierarchy in your answer.
A political and social system based on loyalty, land, and military service Occurs due to weakness in centralized gov’t As central authority breaks down, people look to local leaders for protection
The kings had lots of land; he gave land to lords in exchange for protection and $. Lords gave their land to knights in exchange for protection, $. (known as Fief) Knights let serfs work the land and he would protect them. Serfs got food and shelter. Thus, each person had rights and responsibilities
Disease, riots, outside attacks, and starvation, people fled the cities of the once strong Roman empire In Europe, people now lived on manors, self- sufficient communities consisting of a castle, church, village and surrounding farmlands Economic System: Manoralism – the economic system of Middle Ages based on the manor. No large-scale trade; self- sufficient
High Middle Ages (1000-1300 CE) Decreased invasions; great security and stability Population growth due to increased agricultural production Warming trend after 750 CE helped agriculture Urbanization makes a comeback! Returned to interregional trade
Series of “holy wars” starting in 1095 CE and lasting more than four centuries Directed against Muslims, Orthodox Christians, and Jewish communities Impressive show of organization, finance, transportation, and recruitment considering Western Europe had no centralized rule Crash Course Video Clip