3 The New Eastern EmpireWhen the Western Roman Empire fell in 476, the eastern empire still survived as the Byzantine EmpireLasted for 1000 years after fall of RomeCapital city – ConstantinopleCenter of tradeEasily fortified site on a peninsula bordering natural harbor
4 Constantinople - Center of Trade Byzantine Empire became wealthy due to being center of trade
5 Justinian (ruled 527 – 565) Byzantine emperors enjoyed absolute power Expanded empireBeautified ConstantinopleCreated Justinian Code of LawRelied heavily on wife, Theodora, to help run empire
6 Justinian Conquers (Again) Justinian reconquered lands lost by the Eastern EmpireLands included parts of Italy, Africa, and Spain
7 Rebuilt Constantinople Justinian began rebuilding the capital, Constantinople, after being damaged in a revoltRebuilt city wallsBuilt schools, hospitals, courts, churchesMost famous church and great architectural achievement was the Hagia Sophia
12 Influence of Roman Law – Justinian Code Justinian was highly influenced by Roman lawHad 10 scholars look through thousands of Roman laws to develop own code of lawDeveloped Justinian Code – uniform code of law based on Roman lawIncluded laws on marriage, slavery, property, women’s rights, and crimeLaws were strict but fairGave same rights to everyone – rich or poorHighly influential – laws became model for lawmakers in Europe and our own laws
13 Influence of Roman and Greek Culture Byzantines spoke GreekStudied Latin, Greek, Roman literature and history
14 Tension between Eastern and Western Christian Churches Division of the Roman empire affected the Christian ChurchIn the east – emperor had control over head of churchCaused by different cultural practicesLimited contact between areasReligious practices developed differentlyIn the west – lack of emperor gave pope more responsibilitiesWestern pope claimed control over all Christian churches in east and westEastern church rejected authority of pope
15 The Church Divides Christian Church split in 1054 Known as “The Great Schism”Roman Catholic Church in the westCatholic – “universal”Latin – official languageEastern Orthodox Church in the eastOrthodox – “holding established beliefs”Greek – official languageSplit led to creation of two separate European civilizations
18 Influence on Russia The Byzantine Empire greatly influenced Russia Trade routes between Black Sea and Baltic SeaByzantine missionaries established Orthodox Churches in RussiaRussia and most of Eastern Europe adopted Orthodox Christianity as main religionByzantine missionaries even created an alphabet, the Cyrillic alphabet, to write the Bible in Russian.
20 Byzantine Empire Collapses New Arabian religion of Islam began in 600sMuslims armies attacked ConstantinopleCivil wars, attacks by Ottoman Turks, Serbs, and Europeans hurt Byzantine EmpireOnly small section of empire remained by 1350Ottoman Turks captured Constantinople in 1453This officially ended the Byzantine Empire
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