Presentation on theme: "Parliament Triumphs in England Mr. Divett. A Contrast to Absolutism English political power shifted away from monarchs. Parliament expanded its influence."— Presentation transcript:
Parliament Triumphs in England Mr. Divett
A Contrast to Absolutism English political power shifted away from monarchs. Parliament expanded its influence.
Cooperation With Parliament Henry VIII got Parliament to legalize his actions. Parliament approved the Act of Supremacy.
Cooperation With Parliament Henry VIII spent a lot on war. To raise new taxes he had to work with Parliament. Parliament got used to being a part of important decisions.
Cooperation With Parliament Queen Elizabeth also cooperated well with Parliament. Parliament tended to side with the monarchy, but they liked to be a part of big decisions.
James Stuart James Stuart of Scotland (James I) inherited the throne after Elizabeth. He inherited a bunch of problems. He also tried to say he was more powerful than Parliament.
The Stuarts Challenge The House of Commons did not like this. James fought with Parliament on several issues.
End of Parliament Parliament did not want to talk about taxes. James dissolved Parliament and collected taxes on his own.
Dissenters James also fought with dissenters. The Puritans disagreed with the Church of England and wanted to get rid of Catholic practices.
Charles I Charles I was much like his dad. He taxed heavily and imprisoned his enemies without trial.
Parliament Reconvenes In 1628 Charles I called Parliament together again. He needed money. Parliament tried to get him to sign the Petition of Right. This said that the king couldn’t raise taxes without the consent of Parliament. The King also couldn’t imprison for no reason.
Petition of Right
Charles Signs and Ignores the Petition Charles signs it. Then he ignores it for 11 years. He dissolves Parliament again and rules with out them during those 11 years.
Scottish Revolt Charles’ Archbishop, William Laud, enforced strict Anglican rules. Charles and Laud tried to impose an Anglican prayer book on Scotland and they revolted. Laud
Parliament Again Charles needed money to suppress the Scottish Revolt. He called Parliament together again. This time they turned on him!
The Long Parliament Started in 1640 Lasted (on and off) until 1653 Triggered the greatest English Revolution
Actions of the Long Parliament They tried and executed Charles I’s chief ministers, which included Archbishop Laud. They said only Parliament could dissolve Parliament.
Charles I on Trial
Charles Fights Back In 1642 he stormed the House of Commons with troops. He arrested the most radical leaders. Those who escaped formed their own army.
Civil War Civil war ensued. It lasted from 1642 to 1651.
Cavaliers Army of Charles I Long hair Plumed hats Rich nobles
Roundheads Parliament’s army Poor people from the country Short hair, and thus they were called roundheads
Oliver Cromwell Leader of roundheads Puritan Skilled general Defeated Cavaliers in several decisive battles
Royal Execution Charles I was tried and found guilty. Charles was said to be “a tyrant, traitor, murderer, and a public enemy”. He had no fear of dying He said “I am a martyr of the people”. He said a prayer and gave the cue for his own death.
First Royal Execution The world was shocked by the execution of Charles I. Never before had a king been tried and executed by his own people. This showed kings that their power was limited in England.
Abolition of Monarchy House of Commons abolished: – Monarchy – The House of Lords – The Church of England
Cromwell and Commonwealth They declared England a republic, named the Commonwealth. Cromwell was the leader. They were met with harsh opposition. Commonwealth Coat of Arms
Challenge Charles II would have been the heir to the throne. He had supporters. They attacked England by way of Ireland and Scotland.
Fighting With Parliament Parliament exiled Catholics to barren Ireland Levellers wanted poor people in Parliament Cromwell made himself “Lord Protector” This was basically a dictator
Cromwell Dissolves Parliament
Dissolves the Long Parliament
Puritans Enacted laws mandating Sabbath Day observance Closed Theaters Spoke out against gambling and pubs Encouraged education Invited Jews back into England after 350 years of exile
End of Commonwealth Cromwell died in 1658 People were tired of stringent Puritan beliefs Parliament invited Charles II back to England End of “kingless decade” Start of Restoration
Charles II Popular with the people Reopened theaters and pubs Reestablished the Church of England Tolerated other religions Accepted Petition of Right Learned from his dad’s mistakes
James II Charles II’s brother Took over the throne in 1685 Was Catholic Suspended laws Appointed Catholic leaders
Bloodless Conquest Mary (James’ daughter) and husband William III of Orange were invited to be rulers of England in 1688 They landed with their army James fled to France This bloodless rise to power was called the Glorious Revolution
William and Mary
William III to Claim Throne
Bill of Rights William and Mary were forced to accept acts passed by Parliament before being crowned These are called the English Bill of Rights Parliamentary rights included: – Superiority of Parliament over monarchy – “Power of the purse” – Barring of Catholics from holding throne – Barring of monarchs from interfering with Parliamentary laws
Bill of Rights Citizen’s rights: – Trial by jury – Habeas corpus – No excessive fines – No unjust punishment – No imprisonment without conviction
Toleration Act Passed in 1689 Insured religious toleration for protestants including Puritans and Quakers Still only members of Church of England could hold office Catholics still had no religious freedom
Result of the Glorious Revolution Limited monarchy- a legislative body limits monarch’s power This was radical compared to the rest of Europe Inspired thinkers including John Locke
Constitutional Government After the Glorious Revolution, England evolved into a constitutional government. This included the addition of political parties, the cabinet, and the prime minister.
Political Parties Emerged in the late 1600’s Tories- aristocrats, wanted to preserve old traditions, have royal powers, and have a superior Anglican church Whigs- supported religious toleration, and powerful Parliament
Cabinet Evolved in 1700s Germans George I and George II inherited the English throne They spoke no English They needed a cabinet to help them rule They met in a small room, hence the name “cabinet” US adopted it
Prime Minister The head of the cabinet became known as the Prime Minister Later on the Prime Minister became more powerful than the monarch
David Cameron, Current UK Prime Minister
Oligarchy British government was not quite a democracy They were an oligarchy, or a government ruled by a few people Only the upper classes could vote and hold office