Presentation on theme: "The English Civil War & the Glorious Revolution Preview Preview: –Examine the image on the next slide. What do you think is going on? –What do you think."— Presentation transcript:
Reasons for the English Civil War In 1603, Elizabeth died. She never married, so there were no heirs to continue the Tudor Dynasty Stuart Dynasty Mary Stuart’s son James I became the King of England— started Stuart Dynasty in England
Reasons for the English Civil War Queen Elizabeth recognized the importance of working with Parliament Divine Right James I did not; believed he should be absolute monarch because of Divine Right (God chooses royal families to rule); James I did not listen to Parliament Major problems between Parliament & King over issues of Authority, Money, & Religion
Problems between the King and Parliament Authority—James I believed in divine right and absolutism; Parliament felt king should be limited by Parliament Money—James I has to ask Parliament for money to finance government and life style
What is divine right? 1. King has power to rule from people. 2. King has the power to rule from Congress. 3. King has power to rule from Parliament. 4. King has power to rule from God.
Problems between the King and Parliament Religion—Puritans were members of the Anglican Church who wanted all Catholic rituals removed; Puritans were active members of Parliament & were angered when James I arranged marriage of son (Charles) to a Catholic princess
Reasons for the English Civil War Charles I When James I died in 1625, his son Charles I became king Charles was “worse” than James: –Charles believed in divine right & absolute monarchy; refused to discuss ideas with Parliament—only called Parliament when he needed money
Reasons for the English Civil War Petition of Rights Parliament got fed up with Charles I & refused to give him money unless signed Petition of Rights in 1628: –King could not jail people without a good reason –King could not make taxes without Parliament's approval –King could not keep his soldiers in peoples’ homes & could not use army to maintain order during peacetime
Civil War Charles I was really mad at Parliament & refused to call another Parliament for 11 years until he needed money to end revolts in Ireland & Scotland Conflict between supporters of King (Royalists/Cavaliers) & Parliament grew so bad that a civil war was inevitable
Civil War Cavaliers Roundheads War between Cavaliers (Royalists) vs Roundheads (supporters of Parliament) lasted for 5 years Oliver Cromwell Roundheads found a strong leader in Oliver Cromwell; Cromwell and Roundheads won & behead the king (1 st public execution of a king)
Do you think the Charles I should have been executed? 1. Strongly agree 2. Somewhat agree 3. Somewhat disagree 4. Strongly disagree
What did the 19 Propositions say? 1. Gave the King supreme power. 2. Gave Parliament Supreme power. 3. Made the Commonwealth legal. 4. Gave Oliver Cromwell complete power.
After the Civil War Commonwealth After the Civil War, a Commonwealth was created— type of government with no king & ruled by Parliament Oliver Cromwell led the Commonwealth, but did not use democracy— he became a military dictator
New Commonwealth Life in the Commonwealth was harsh because it was led by Cromwell & the Puritans; Forced strict religious rules on people of England: It was illegal to go to theaters & sporting events; “merrymaking” & “amusement” were illegal Citizens hated living this way & began to want to bring back a king again
English Civil War Graffiti King Charles is a bum! Let Parliament rule! Cavaliers stink!
Restoration People grew tired of the severe, religious rule of Oliver Cromwell & the Puritans; many wanted a king again Charles II “Merry Monarch” he got along with Parliament!! In 1660, Charles I’s son became King of England—Charles II was called the “Merry Monarch” because he brought back theatres, sporting events, dancing & he got along with Parliament!!
Restoration Charles II learned from the lessons of his father & grandfather: –Did not try to rule by Divine Right & did not threaten Parliament’s authority Habeas Corpus Law –Passed Habeas Corpus Law—everyone guaranteed a trial after arrest; cannot be held in jail forever –Anglicanism was official religion, but treated Puritans & Catholics equally
Restoration During the Restoration, Parliament strengthened the Church of England—only Anglicans could attend universities, serve in Parliament, be priests in Anglican Church Constitutional Monarchy Parliament created Constitutional Monarchy based on Magna Carta & Petition of Right (Guaranteed rights of people & limited king)
Restoration BUT, there were problems: secret –Charles II needed more money than Parliament was willing to give; so he made a secret agreement with Louis XIV of France to convert to Catholicism in exchange for money James II –Charles II had no children; when he died, his openly-Catholic brother James II will be king (Parliament's worst fear!!)
Glorious Revolution James ignoring Parliament’s religious laws, James appointed Catholics to government and university positions. Parliament was worried the throne would go to James II son who was to be raised Catholic. Encouraged William of Orange (ruler of the Netherlands who was married to James II daughter Mary) to invade and take over.
Glorious Revolution (Cont) James II fled to France when he realized he had little support from England. This peaceful transfer of power was called the Glorious Revolution.
William and Mary William and Mary swore an oath that they would govern the people of England. Parliament passed the Bill of Rights. This passage made it clear that Parliament was in control.
What is a commonwealth? 1. A state ruled by the monarch. 2. A state ruled by a hegemon. 3. A state ruled by a constitution. 4. A state ruled by elected representatives.
What is a constitutional monarchy? 1. Form of government in which monarch’s power is limited by the constitution. 2. Form of government in which monarch’s power is unlimited by the constitution. 3. Form of government where Parliament is in control. 4. Form of government where Parliament is not in control.
What is habeas corpus? 1. People have to be tried. 2. People cannot be held in prison w/o just cause or w/o a trial. 3. People need to be read their miranda rights. 4. People have to have an attorney present at trial.