4Reasons for the English Civil War In 1603, Elizabeth died. She never married, so there were no heirs to continue the Tudor DynastyMary Stuart’s son James I became the King of England— started Stuart Dynasty in England
6Reasons for the English Civil War Queen Elizabeth recognized the importance of working with ParliamentJames I did not; believed he should be absolute monarch because of Divine Right (God chooses royal families to rule); James I did not listen to ParliamentMajor problems between Parliament & King over issues of Authority, Money, & Religion
7Problems between the King and Parliament Authority—James I believed in divine right and absolutism; Parliament felt king should be limited by ParliamentMoney—James I has to ask Parliament for money to finance government and life style
8What is divine right? King has power to rule from people. King has the power to rule from Congress.King has power to rule from Parliament.King has power to rule from God.
9Problems between the King and Parliament Religion—Puritans were members of the Anglican Church who wanted all Catholic rituals removed; Puritans were active members of Parliament & were angered when James I arranged marriage of son (Charles) to a Catholic princess
10Reasons for the English Civil War When James I died in 1625, his son Charles I became kingCharles was “worse” than James:Charles believed in divine right & absolute monarchy; refused to discuss ideas with Parliament—only called Parliament when he needed money
11Reasons for the English Civil War Parliament got fed up with Charles I & refused to give him money unless signed Petition of Rights in 1628:King could not jail people without a good reasonKing could not make taxes without Parliament's approvalKing could not keep his soldiers in peoples’ homes & could not use army to maintain order during peacetime
12Civil WarCharles I was really mad at Parliament & refused to call another Parliament for 11 years until he needed money to end revolts in Ireland & ScotlandConflict between supporters of King (Royalists/Cavaliers) & Parliament grew so bad that a civil war was inevitable
14Civil WarWar between Cavaliers (Royalists) vs Roundheads (supporters of Parliament) lasted for 5 yearsRoundheads found a strong leader in Oliver Cromwell; Cromwell and Roundheads won & behead the king (1st public execution of a king)
16Do you think the Charles I should have been executed? Strongly agreeSomewhat agreeSomewhat disagreeStrongly disagree
17What did the 19 Propositions say? Gave the King supreme power.Gave Parliament Supreme power.Made the Commonwealth legal.Gave Oliver Cromwell complete power.
18After the Civil WarAfter the Civil War, a Commonwealth was created—type of government with no king & ruled by ParliamentOliver Cromwell led the Commonwealth, but did not use democracy— he became a military dictator
19New CommonwealthLife in the Commonwealth was harsh because it was led by Cromwell & the Puritans; Forced strict religious rules on people of England:It was illegal to go to theaters & sporting events; “merrymaking” & “amusement” were illegalCitizens hated living this way & began to want to bring back a king again
20English Civil War Graffiti King Charles is a bum! Let Parliament rule!Xerox graffiti assignment to back of notesCavaliers stink!
22RestorationPeople grew tired of the severe, religious rule of Oliver Cromwell & the Puritans; many wanted a king againIn 1660, Charles I’s son became King of England—Charles II was called the “Merry Monarch” because he brought back theatres, sporting events, dancing & he got along with Parliament!!
24RestorationCharles II learned from the lessons of his father & grandfather:Did not try to rule by Divine Right & did not threaten Parliament’s authorityPassed Habeas Corpus Law—everyone guaranteed a trial after arrest; cannot be held in jail foreverAnglicanism was official religion, but treated Puritans & Catholics equally
25RestorationDuring the Restoration, Parliament strengthened the Church of England—only Anglicans could attend universities, serve in Parliament, be priests in Anglican ChurchParliament created Constitutional Monarchy based on Magna Carta & Petition of Right (Guaranteed rights of people & limited king)
26Restoration BUT, there were problems: Charles II needed more money than Parliament was willing to give; so he made a secret agreement with Louis XIV of France to convert to Catholicism in exchange for moneyCharles II had no children; when he died, his openly-Catholic brother James II will be king (Parliament's worst fear!!)
28Glorious RevolutionJames ignoring Parliament’s religious laws, James appointed Catholics to government and university positions.Parliament was worried the throne would go to James II son who was to be raised Catholic.Encouraged William of Orange (ruler of the Netherlands who was married to James II daughter Mary) to invade and take over.
29Glorious Revolution (Cont) James II fled to France when he realized he had little support from England.This peaceful transfer of power was called the Glorious Revolution.
30William and MaryWilliam and Mary swore an oath that they would govern the people of England.Parliament passed the Bill of Rights.This passage made it clear that Parliament was in control.
31What is a commonwealth? A state ruled by the monarch. A state ruled by a hegemon.A state ruled by a constitution.A state ruled by elected representatives.
32What is a constitutional monarchy? Form of government in which monarch’s power is limited by the constitution.Form of government in which monarch’s power is unlimited by the constitution.Form of government where Parliament is in control.Form of government where Parliament is not in control.
33What is habeas corpus? People have to be tried. People cannot be held in prison w/o just cause or w/o a trial.People need to be read their miranda rights.People have to have an attorney present at trial.