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Britain: The Triumph of Parliament

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1 Britain: The Triumph of Parliament
Section 4.20

2 Questions to Consider Explain the nature of the Restoration in England. Of what significance was the legislation enacted by the Restoration Parliament? How did religious matters again bring Parliament and king into conflict? What policies of James II precipitated the Revolution of 1688? Summarize the legislation introduced after the Revolution of 1688? Of what constitutional significance for England was the Revolution of 1688? Why have writers in more recent times “deglorified” the revolution? Give arguments for and against this point of view? What were the consequences of these events for Scotland? Ireland?

3 Terms to Know Charles II Dissenters Treaty of Dover
“declaration of indulgence” Test Act Whigs and Tories “trial of seven bishops” “Glorious Revolution” William and Mary Battle of the Boyne Bill of Rights United Kingdom of Great Britain Act of Settlement of 1701 Toleration Act “penal code” for Ireland

4 The Restoration, 1660 – 1688: The Later Stuarts
Along with the monarchy, the Anglican church and the Parliament were restored Charles II is wary of Parliament Parliament is more loyal to king to keep the peace Parliament cleans up property rights by abolishing feudal payments Rents are replaced with taxes that Parliament controls by placing taxes on themselves Payment of taxes gives Parliament control over England arranged to have the king paid from taxes (Parliamentary control)

5 The Restoration Continued
Landowners became the justices of the peace “squirearchy” decided small lawsuits, punished misdemeanors, cared for roads Exclusion of the Dissenters Puritans are excluded from government participation forbidden to teach school, excluded from two corporations, gov. jobs, from having religious meetings, to sit in the HOC Commoners are excluded as well Act of Settlement of 1662 limited the movement of the poor each parish is responsible for its own poor (keep them immobile)

6 The Restoration Continued
Re-Catholicization was a slow drifting tendency in much of Europe England remained staunchly anti-Catholic Charles II was Catholic at heart Secret treaty of Dover of 1670 Charles agreed to help Louis against the Dutch Louis agreed to give Charles 3 million livres James the heir of Charles announced his conversion to Rome (Catholicism) Declaration of indulgence Charles II announced non-enforcement of laws against dissenters feared as a way to promote Catholicism James II of England

7 The Restoration Continued
Parliament passes the “Test Act” 1673 All office holders had to take communion in the Church of England (1828) Movement to exclude James from the throne by law grows Exclusionists (known as Whigs) were mostly from Upper Aristocracy (great nobles) Kings supporters (Tories) Lower Aristocracy and gentry

8 The Revolution of 1688 1685 James II becomes king
Suspends the Test Act and appoints Catholics to important positions The alienation created by James II moves Tories over to Whig side 1688 a son is born to James II and baptized Catholic Leading political figures abandon James II and offer the throne to his daughter Mary (Protestant) Mary is the wife of William III who is focused solely on the plight of the Dutch

9 The Revolution of 1688 William III “invades” England and James II flees 1689 a skirmish with James II in Ireland (Catholic) ends the dispute and James II flees to France Louis XIV refuses to recognize William III as king and supports James II

10 The Revolution of 1688 Continued
1689 Bill of Rights no law could be suspended by the king no taxes could be raised or army maintained without Parliament’s consent no subject could be arrested without legal process 1701 Act of Settlement no Catholic could be king of England Toleration Act Allows Dissenters to practice their religion but not be in gov Existence of Catholic interests eventually was accepted ending wars over religion in England

11 Irish Threat of Revolution
1707 Scotland unites with England Keeps Catholicism off the throne in Scotland Gives Scotland economic rights in England rights to the East India Company, English colonies, mercantilism, and Navigation Acts

12 Irish Threat of Revolution
England establishes a “penal” code over Ireland to keep it in check Catholic clergy was banned Catholics could not vote Catholic teachers could not teach Catholic parents could not send children to Catholic schools Catholics could not take a degree at Trinity College Catholic Irishmen could not purchase land Catholic Irishmen could not own a horse worth more than 5 pounds Irish exports are prohibited Irish imports must come from England Ireland was the most repressed population in Europe

13 Continuation of Cromwellian Settlement

14 Coalition Against France
England joins the coalition against France under William’s leadership England lends money to the Dutch Create the Bank of England Creates liquidity that the Continent cannot match British National Debt Merchants of London, Whig aristocrats, having lent money to gov had big reason to defend it

15 Glorious Revolution Sum of events after 1688 became known as the Glorious Revolution Parliamentary government Rule of law Right of rebellion against tyranny (not in Ireland) Restrictions on the power of English kings Participation in government in England is limited no salaries serves the landed aristocracy 1710 Act requires large, landed incomes of HOC members This class in many ways was the only class fit to lead

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