2Rule and Order in City-States Polis – The Fundamental Greek political unitMade up of city-state and the surrounding countrysideAt public center was Acropolis – male citizens gathered there
3Greek Political Structure Monarchy – Gov’t ruled by a King or monarchAristocracy – Gov’t ruled by nobles and landownersOligarchy – Gov’t ruled by a few powerful people
4Defending the Polis (city-state) Iron became cheaper than bronzeNow ordinary citizens could afford Iron spears and shields“Commoners” defending the polis make up a “new” armyFoot-soldiers (Hoplites) used the Phalanx formation to dominate opposing armies
7Feared Warriors: The Spartans Uniqueness of Sparta’s geography (pg. 112)Spartans built a military stateConquered areas – made people “helots” – or slaves
8Spartan GovernmentGovernment composed of two groups: The Assembly (free adult males – voted on issues) and the Council of Elders (proposed laws)5 elected ephors carried out the laws
9Spartan EducationSpartan’s lives were completely focused on the militarySpartan Goal: Produced tough, battle-tested warriorsAge 7: Boys left home – went into army barracksAge 20: Allowed to marry, but still lived full-time with armyAge 60: Retirement from Army – live w/family
10Questions to answerHow did life differ for Spartan women? (Think about their differences with Spartan men and with Athenian women)What did the Spartans “sacrifice” by focusing so much on the military?
11Democracy in AthensAthens avoided problems by creating the first democracy: Rule by the peopleWho were “excluded” from being full-citizens?What was the expected “role” for women in Athens?
12The Political and Economic Reformers in Greece What was each of the following reformers responsible for and what did it do???Draco –Solon –
13Reforms of Cleisthenes Helped the democracy by limiting the nobilityRegular citizens now could propose laws and debateCreated the Council of Five Hundred – random collection that proposed laws and counseled the assembly1/5 of Athenian residents were full-citizens
14The Persian WarsPersian King Darius was upset that Greeks were settling in Ionia (coast of Anatolia)Darius put down the revolt in Anatolia and wanted to burn Athens in revenge
16Battle of Marathon Persians sent a fleet to Marathon 25,000 Persians vs. 10,000 AtheniansPersians light armor no match for Greek phalanx formationsOutcome: 6,400 Persians dead; only 192 Athenians
17Athens Undefended After Marathon, the city of Athens was undefended Army sent their best runner: Pheidippides to run to Athens to alert them of possible attack26-mile journey now known as a “Marathon”
18After 10 years – Persian War continues Darius’ son Xerxes now in power for PersiaWhat did some people in Athens want to do when the Persians came back?What happened at the following battles –ThermopylaeSalamisPlataea