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Warring City-States Greece and Sparta. Rule and Order in City-States Polis – The Fundamental Greek political unit Made up of city-state and the surrounding.

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Presentation on theme: "Warring City-States Greece and Sparta. Rule and Order in City-States Polis – The Fundamental Greek political unit Made up of city-state and the surrounding."— Presentation transcript:

1 Warring City-States Greece and Sparta

2 Rule and Order in City-States Polis – The Fundamental Greek political unit Made up of city-state and the surrounding countrysideMade up of city-state and the surrounding countryside At public center was Acropolis – male citizens gathered thereAt public center was Acropolis – male citizens gathered there

3 Greek Political Structure Monarchy – Gov’t ruled by a King or monarch Monarchy – Gov’t ruled by a King or monarch Aristocracy – Gov’t ruled by nobles and landowners Aristocracy – Gov’t ruled by nobles and landowners Oligarchy – Gov’t ruled by a few powerful people Oligarchy – Gov’t ruled by a few powerful people

4 Defending the Polis (city-state) Iron became cheaper than bronze Iron became cheaper than bronze Now ordinary citizens could afford Iron spears and shields Now ordinary citizens could afford Iron spears and shields “Commoners” defending the polis make up a “new” army “Commoners” defending the polis make up a “new” army Foot-soldiers (Hoplites) used the Phalanx formation to dominate opposing armies Foot-soldiers (Hoplites) used the Phalanx formation to dominate opposing armies

5 The Phalanx

6 Phalanx

7 Feared Warriors: The Spartans Uniqueness of Sparta’s geography (pg. 112) Uniqueness of Sparta’s geography (pg. 112) Spartans built a military state Spartans built a military state Conquered areas – made people “helots” – or slaves Conquered areas – made people “helots” – or slaves

8 Spartan Government Government composed of two groups: The Assembly (free adult males – voted on issues) and the Council of Elders (proposed laws) Government composed of two groups: The Assembly (free adult males – voted on issues) and the Council of Elders (proposed laws) 5 elected ephors carried out the laws 5 elected ephors carried out the laws

9 Spartan Education Spartan’s lives were completely focused on the military Spartan’s lives were completely focused on the military Spartan Goal: Produced tough, battle-tested warriors Spartan Goal: Produced tough, battle-tested warriors Age 7: Boys left home – went into army barracks Age 20: Allowed to marry, but still lived full-time with army Age 60: Retirement from Army – live w/family

10 Questions to answer How did life differ for Spartan women? (Think about their differences with Spartan men and with Athenian women) How did life differ for Spartan women? (Think about their differences with Spartan men and with Athenian women) What did the Spartans “sacrifice” by focusing so much on the military? What did the Spartans “sacrifice” by focusing so much on the military?

11 Democracy in Athens Athens avoided problems by creating the first democracy: Rule by the people Athens avoided problems by creating the first democracy: Rule by the people Who were “excluded” from being full- citizens? Who were “excluded” from being full- citizens? What was the expected “role” for women in Athens? What was the expected “role” for women in Athens?

12 The Political and Economic Reformers in Greece What was each of the following reformers responsible for and what did it do??? What was each of the following reformers responsible for and what did it do??? Draco –Draco – Solon –Solon –

13 Reforms of Cleisthenes Helped the democracy by limiting the nobility Helped the democracy by limiting the nobility Regular citizens now could propose laws and debate Regular citizens now could propose laws and debate Created the Council of Five Hundred – random collection that proposed laws and counseled the assembly Created the Council of Five Hundred – random collection that proposed laws and counseled the assembly 1/5 of Athenian residents were full- citizens 1/5 of Athenian residents were full- citizens

14 The Persian Wars Persian King Darius was upset that Greeks were settling in Ionia (coast of Anatolia) Persian King Darius was upset that Greeks were settling in Ionia (coast of Anatolia) Darius put down the revolt in Anatolia and wanted to burn Athens in revenge Darius put down the revolt in Anatolia and wanted to burn Athens in revenge

15

16 Battle of Marathon Persians sent a fleet to Marathon Persians sent a fleet to Marathon 25,000 Persians vs. 10,000 Athenians 25,000 Persians vs. 10,000 Athenians Persians light armor no match for Greek phalanx formations Persians light armor no match for Greek phalanx formations Outcome: 6,400 Persians dead; only 192 Athenians Outcome: 6,400 Persians dead; only 192 Athenians

17 Athens Undefended After Marathon, the city of Athens was undefended After Marathon, the city of Athens was undefended Army sent their best runner: Pheidippides to run to Athens to alert them of possible attack Army sent their best runner: Pheidippides to run to Athens to alert them of possible attack 26-mile journey now known as a “Marathon” 26-mile journey now known as a “Marathon”

18 After 10 years – Persian War continues Darius’ son Xerxes now in power for Persia Darius’ son Xerxes now in power for Persia What did some people in Athens want to do when the Persians came back?What did some people in Athens want to do when the Persians came back? What happened at the following battles –What happened at the following battles – Thermopylae Thermopylae Salamis Salamis Plataea Plataea


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