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Warring City-States Greece and Sparta.

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Presentation on theme: "Warring City-States Greece and Sparta."— Presentation transcript:

1 Warring City-States Greece and Sparta

2 Rule and Order in City-States
Polis – The Fundamental Greek political unit Made up of city-state and the surrounding countryside At public center was Acropolis – male citizens gathered there

3 Greek Political Structure
Monarchy – Gov’t ruled by a King or monarch Aristocracy – Gov’t ruled by nobles and landowners Oligarchy – Gov’t ruled by a few powerful people

4 Defending the Polis (city-state)
Iron became cheaper than bronze Now ordinary citizens could afford Iron spears and shields “Commoners” defending the polis make up a “new” army Foot-soldiers (Hoplites) used the Phalanx formation to dominate opposing armies

5 The Phalanx

6 Phalanx

7 Feared Warriors: The Spartans
Uniqueness of Sparta’s geography (pg. 112) Spartans built a military state Conquered areas – made people “helots” – or slaves

8 Spartan Government Government composed of two groups: The Assembly (free adult males – voted on issues) and the Council of Elders (proposed laws) 5 elected ephors carried out the laws

9 Spartan Education Spartan’s lives were completely focused on the military Spartan Goal: Produced tough, battle-tested warriors Age 7: Boys left home – went into army barracks Age 20: Allowed to marry, but still lived full-time with army Age 60: Retirement from Army – live w/family

10 Questions to answer How did life differ for Spartan women? (Think about their differences with Spartan men and with Athenian women) What did the Spartans “sacrifice” by focusing so much on the military?

11 Democracy in Athens Athens avoided problems by creating the first democracy: Rule by the people Who were “excluded” from being full-citizens? What was the expected “role” for women in Athens?

12 The Political and Economic Reformers in Greece
What was each of the following reformers responsible for and what did it do??? Draco – Solon –

13 Reforms of Cleisthenes
Helped the democracy by limiting the nobility Regular citizens now could propose laws and debate Created the Council of Five Hundred – random collection that proposed laws and counseled the assembly 1/5 of Athenian residents were full-citizens

14 The Persian Wars Persian King Darius was upset that Greeks were settling in Ionia (coast of Anatolia) Darius put down the revolt in Anatolia and wanted to burn Athens in revenge


16 Battle of Marathon Persians sent a fleet to Marathon
25,000 Persians vs. 10,000 Athenians Persians light armor no match for Greek phalanx formations Outcome: 6,400 Persians dead; only 192 Athenians

17 Athens Undefended After Marathon, the city of Athens was undefended
Army sent their best runner: Pheidippides to run to Athens to alert them of possible attack 26-mile journey now known as a “Marathon”

18 After 10 years – Persian War continues
Darius’ son Xerxes now in power for Persia What did some people in Athens want to do when the Persians came back? What happened at the following battles – Thermopylae Salamis Plataea

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