Presentation on theme: "Sparta and Athens. The Emergence of Sparta Spartan society was far different from Athens –Was located on the Peloponnesus peninsula Spartans took over."— Presentation transcript:
The Emergence of Sparta Spartan society was far different from Athens –Was located on the Peloponnesus peninsula Spartans took over lands near them to expand their empire for food –People conquered forced to work their own land- called helots –Helots revolted and almost defeated Spartans –Due to revolt the Spartans build a strong military state
Spartan Government Spartan government was an oligarchy –Rule by a few strong military leaders Two powerful kings ruled Sparta at all times Under the kings were two other groups –The assembly – free adult males & elected officials Voted on the major issues of Sparta –Council of Elders – those who were elder statesmen Proposed and carried out the approved laws of Sparta Also in charge of education and the court system
Spartan Society Upper Class – those who were family of the original people of Sparta (original land owners) –Citizens usually had to pass a physical test to become a citizen If a person failed they became a Middle Class citizen Middle Class – non-citizens but were free people –People worked industrial or commerce jobs (building/selling) Lower Class – Helots – those forced to work their own land, but conquered by Spartans –Were seen as just slightly better than slaves (farmers mainly) Slaves – those who were owned by wealthy land owners of the Upper Class –Did the chores of the home, etc.
Spartan Society (cont’d) Women held a higher status in Sparta v. Athens –If they passed a physical test they were citizens too –Able to be seen in society if a citizen –Other Greek city-states questioned this role Spartan Babies –Babies that were thought to be unfit would be left on mountaintops or tossed away by the father –Unfit babies includes: Deformed, undersized, or anything not considered strong
Spartan Education Education differed for males and females –Women were given some education in Sparta For the boys – life centered on military training –Around age 7 boys would be taken to a barracks –Training would last for next 12-15 years Heads were shaved and their clothes and food was sparse Trained to fight, kill and always put Sparta before self For the girls – education involved many things –Girls taught to run, wrestle and play sports –Also focused on placing Sparta before themselves Neither boys or girls focused on the arts, or other skills such as orating (speaking)
The Emergence of Athens Located on the Balkan peninsula –Was controlled by the Mycenaeans until they were weakened by the Trojan War Was first ruled by a monarchy Later switched to aristocracy –Rule by a few rich landowners For a short period of time they were under tyranny Eventually they created a limited democracy
The Athenian Democracy Athenians created a democracy to avoid a war –Problems b/w rich and poor were growing –Same problems were similar all through Greece Solon and Cleisthenes both help reform Athens Only free adult males were part of democracy –Makes it a limited democracy- limited people –Also a direct democracy- people vote, majority rules Women, foreigners, slaves not allowed to vote –Not given citizenship or rights either
Athenian Society Athenian society was based on education, arts and knowledge Society had 2 classes based on wealth/land –Citizen Class- those who owned land and were able to vote and participate in the government –Non-citizen Class- all non-land owners, slaves and foreign people in the city-state of Greece –Women had no rights to vote and mainly stayed in the home to deal with cooking, cleaning, children Could be a citizen if her husband was, but could not vote
Athenian Education Education in Athens was the most important –Focused on reading, writing, math, and speaking –Also focused on philosophy and music For the boys- –Boys were taught from age 6-7 in the arts at schools –Went to 4 additional years of school around age 18 –Were expected to serve 2 years in the military For the girls- –Girls were taught to read and write at home –Also taught how to weave, cook, etc.
Sparta v. Athens Neither area like the other –Both thought they were better than the other Sparta had the stronger Army –Athens had the stronger Navy Athens had the smarter, more rounded people –Sparta had the better fighters Women had a larger role in Sparta and could be citizens- if they passed the physical test –Women of Athens were only citizens if husband was