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Geography How did the following impact Greece?  Sea  Mountains  Climate Why did the Greeks have so many colonies throughout Mediterranean?

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Presentation on theme: "Geography How did the following impact Greece?  Sea  Mountains  Climate Why did the Greeks have so many colonies throughout Mediterranean?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Geography How did the following impact Greece?  Sea  Mountains  Climate Why did the Greeks have so many colonies throughout Mediterranean?

2 Standard WHI.5 Students will be able to demonstrate knowledge of ancient Greece in terms of its impact on Western civilization by:  Identifying the social structure and role of slavery, and comparing the city-states of Athens and Sparta  Evaluating the significance of the Persian wars Essential Questions How did Sparta differ from Athens? Why were wars with Persia important to the development of Greek culture?

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4 Polis 750 B.C.E. Fundamental political unit in Ancient Greece Made up of a city and surrounding countryside Often less than 20,000 residents Had agora (public center) and acropolis (fortified hill top) Greek Political Structures Several types of governments  Monarchy Kings and Queens rule  Aristocracy Ruled by a small group of people, usually nobles  Oligarchy Ruled by a few powerful people, usually wealthy merchants

5 New kind of Army Iron emerges  Cheaper than bronze, more available  Ordinary citizens could afford weapons  Citizens expected to defend Polis  Emergence of Phalanx Tyrants seize power Citizen-soldiers started to rebel Tyrants, powerful individuals, gained power by appealing to poor

6 Lived in the Peloponnesus (southern Greece) Location Southern Greece Peloponnesus Gulf of Corinth

7 Conquerors Conquered neighbors Messenia 725 B.C.E. Messenians became helots Revolt of helots in 600 B.C.E. forced Spartans to strengthen military Government and Society Oligarchy – headed by two kings  Council of Elders Proposed laws to assembly Made up of 2 kings and 28 citizens over 60 years old Ephors- 5 elected officials carried out laws Led education of youth Social Structure  Diverse social groups  Rigid structure Education Men  Life centered around military training  Age 7- left for barracks  Did not encourage arts  Stressed duty, strength, discipline Militaristic and aggressive society Women  Hardy lives  Service to Sparta above family  Women had more rights than most areas

8 Spartans prepared for military life Every newborn examined, sickly children killed At age 7 boys went into military training At age 20 a man could marry, but lived in barracks another 10 years At age 30, he took his place in the assembly

9 Women Expected to produce healthy, warrior sons Exercised and strengthened their bodies Had to obey husband and father Had right to inherit property Ran family estates while men were at war Affairs Isolated itself Looked down on trade and wealth Forbade travel

10 Located in Attica Under protection of Goddess Athena Evolved from monarchy to aristocracy “cradle of democracy” Noble landowners had power

11 MonarchyAristocracyOligarchyDirect Democracy State ruled by KingState ruled by Nobility State ruled by a small group of citizens State ruled by its citizens Rule is hereditaryRule is hereditary and based on land ownership Rule is based on wealth Rule is based on citizenship Some rulers claim divine right Social status and wealth support ruler’s authority Ruling group controls military Majority rule decides vote Practiced in Mycenae (1450 B.C.E.) Practiced in Athens (584 B.C.E.) Practiced in Sparta ( B.C.E.) Practiced in Athens (461 B.C.E.)

12 Stages of evolution in Athenian government Early Athens was ruled by a king Aristocracy took power in 7 th century  They owned land and political power Tyrants who worked for reform Draco Solon Origin of democratic principles Direct democracy Public debate Duties of the citizen

13 Location Located on rocky hill Eastern Greece Political Development Power struggle b/w rich and poor Avoided civil war with reforms Led to creation of democracy  Only for free adult males Life Slaves  1/3 population  No political rights Women  No political rights  Took care of children

14 Clashes between aristocrats and common people Draco 621 B.C.E. Wrote first legal code Contracts/property ownership Conflicts continued 594 B.C.E. Aristocrats prevented civil war by electing Solon to head the government Gave him power to reform law Political Reforms Outlawed slavery All citizens allowed to participate in Athenian assembly Bring charges against wrongdoers Neglected land reforms  Led to fighting  Pisistratus 546 B.C.E. seizes power as a Tyrant Economic Reforms Encouraged export of grapes and olives Profitable overseas trade

15 Pisistratus 546 B.C.E. Tyrant Provided funds to help peasants buy farm equipment  Financed reform by a tax on agricultural production Massive building program  Gave jobs to poor  Earned him support of poor Cleisthenes 508 B.C.E. Introduced more reforms Wanted to makes Athens a full democracy and break up nobility Increased power of assembly  Anyone allowed to propose laws Council of 500  Proposed laws  Counseled the assembly  Chosen by lot Created limited democracy

16 Only males could participate in Assembly Women were “imperfect beings” without the ability to reason Wealthy women lived in seclusion in homes and managed household. Poor women tended sheep, were spinners or weavers.

17 Girls received no education Boys attend school if affordable Studied reading, writing, poetry, and music Studied public speaking Received military training

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19 Angry at an insult, sent messengers into Greece asking for gifts of “earth and water” Most city-states obeyed Athens and Sparta did not submit United Greece

20 500 B.C. Athens was wealthiest city-state and had helped Ionian Greeks rebel against Persia Persians crushed the rebel cities Darius wanted to punish the Athenians Sent the Persian army, landed at Marathon Persian War united Athens and Sparta against the Persian Empire Battle at Marathon 490 B.C.E. Persian fleet lands with 25,000 men Greek phalanx destroyed the Persians Athens was defenseless Pheidippides “raced” back to Athens to warn the city  Saved the city

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23 After Darius’ death, his son Xerxes wanted revenge 480 B.C. brought a larger force to Greece Met resistance with a small force of Spartans at Thermopylae Led by King Leonidas Greeks divided and weak 300 Spartans sacrificed themselves at Battle of Thermopylae

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25 After defeating the Spartans, marched to Athens and burned it to the ground Athenians had already left Themistocles had built ships to help defend Greece after Marathon Greeks lured the Persians ships into the straight of Salamis and tore them to pieces Battle at Salamis destroyed the Persian fleet  1/3 sank Left Greeks in control of the Aegean Sea Greeks then marched into Asia Minor and ended the Persian invasion Spartans finally defeated Persians at Plataea 479 B.C.E.

26 An Athenian army commander, statesman, and archon Designed the Piraeus naval harbor Never popular with fellow citizens despite being the hero of Battle of Salamis Ostracized in 470 B.C. and was sentenced to death Committed suicide 460 B.C.

27 Athens emerged most powerful city-state Organized an alliance with other city-states called the Delian agreement Athens emerges in a position of strength Athens was pursuing aggressive policies against neighboring state Athens was moving towards democracy Pericles will come to power and take Athens’ into its Golden Age.

28 Who?The united Greek city-states vs. the Persian Empire. Greece Wins!!!! When?499 B.C.E. – 449 B.C.E. Why?Control of the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas and the economic advantages that go along with controlling the seas. Major Battles?2 Major Battles were at Marathon and Salamis. The Greeks defeated the Persians in both. Results of WarAthens emerges as the dominant power in Greece after the formation of the Delian League. The Delian League was an alliance between Athens and other Greek city-states (not Sparta) that made Athens wealthy and powerful.

29 Standard WHI.5 Students will be able to demonstrate knowledge of ancient Greece in terms of its impact on Western civilization by:  Identifying the social structure and role of slavery, and comparing the city-states of Athens and Sparta  Evaluating the significance of the Persian wars Essential Questions How did Sparta differ from Athens? Why were wars with Persia important to the development of Greek culture?


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