Presentation on theme: "Rewind Geography How did the following impact Greece?"— Presentation transcript:
1Rewind Geography How did the following impact Greece? SeaMountainsClimateWhy did the Greeks have so many colonies throughout Mediterranean?
2Today’s Objectives Standard WHI.5 Essential Questions Students will be able to demonstrate knowledge of ancient Greece in terms of its impact on Western civilization by:Identifying the social structure and role of slavery, and comparing the city-states of Athens and SpartaEvaluating the significance of the Persian warsEssential QuestionsHow did Sparta differ from Athens?Why were wars with Persia important to the development of Greek culture?
4Rule and Order in Greek-City States Polis750 B.C.E.Fundamental political unit in Ancient GreeceMade up of a city and surrounding countrysideOften less than 20,000 residentsHad agora (public center) and acropolis (fortified hill top)Greek Political StructuresSeveral types of governmentsMonarchyKings and Queens ruleAristocracyRuled by a small group of people, usually noblesOligarchyRuled by a few powerful people, usually wealthy merchants
5Rule and Order New kind of Army Tyrants seize power Iron emerges Cheaper than bronze, more availableOrdinary citizens could afford weaponsCitizens expected to defend PolisEmergence of PhalanxTyrants seize powerCitizen-soldiers started to rebelTyrants, powerful individuals, gained power by appealing to poor
6Spartans Lived in the Peloponnesus (southern Greece) Location Gulf of Corinth
7Sparta Government and Society Conquerors Education Oligarchy – headed by two kingsCouncil of EldersProposed laws to assemblyMade up of 2 kings and 28 citizens over 60 years oldEphors- 5 elected officials carried out lawsLed education of youthSocial StructureDiverse social groupsRigid structureEducationMenLife centered around military trainingAge 7- left for barracksDid not encourage artsStressed duty, strength, disciplineMilitaristic and aggressive societyWomenHardy livesService to Sparta above familyWomen had more rights than most areasSpartaConquerorsConquered neighbors Messenia 725 B.C.E.Messenians became helotsRevolt of helots in 600 B.C.E. forced Spartans to strengthen military
8Citizenship Spartans prepared for military life Every newborn examined, sickly children killedAt age 7 boys went into military trainingAt age 20 a man could marry, but lived in barracks another 10 yearsAt age 30, he took his place in the assembly
9Spartan Life Women Affairs Expected to produce healthy, warrior sons Exercised and strengthened their bodiesHad to obey husband and fatherHad right to inherit propertyRan family estates while men were at warAffairsIsolated itselfLooked down on trade and wealthForbade travel
10Athens Located in Attica Under protection of Goddess Athena Evolved from monarchy to aristocracy“cradle of democracy”Noble landowners had power
11Forms of Government Monarchy Aristocracy Oligarchy Direct Democracy State ruled by KingState ruled by NobilityState ruled by a small group of citizensState ruled by its citizensRule is hereditaryRule is hereditary and based on land ownershipRule is based on wealthRule is based on citizenshipSome rulers claim divine rightSocial status and wealth support ruler’s authorityRuling group controls militaryMajority rule decides votePracticed in Mycenae (1450 B.C.E.)Practiced in Athens (584 B.C.E.)Practiced in Sparta ( B.C.E.)Practiced in Athens (461 B.C.E.)
12Athens Government Stages of evolution in Athenian government Early Athens was ruled by a kingAristocracy took power in 7th centuryThey owned land and political powerTyrants who worked for reformDracoSolonOrigin of democratic principlesDirect democracyPublic debateDuties of the citizen
13Athens Builds a Democracy LocationLocated on rocky hillEastern GreecePolitical DevelopmentPower struggle b/w rich and poorAvoided civil war with reformsLed to creation of democracyOnly for free adult malesLifeSlaves1/3 populationNo political rightsWomenTook care of children
14Solon’s Political and Economic Reforms Clashes between aristocrats and common peopleDraco 621 B.C.E.Wrote first legal codeContracts/property ownershipConflicts continued594 B.C.E.Aristocrats prevented civil war by electing Solon to head the governmentGave him power to reform lawPolitical ReformsOutlawed slaveryAll citizens allowed to participate in Athenian assemblyBring charges against wrongdoersNeglected land reformsLed to fightingPisistratus 546 B.C.E. seizes power as a TyrantEconomic ReformsEncouraged export of grapes and olivesProfitable overseas trade
15Road to Democracy Cleisthenes 508 B.C.E. Pisistratus 546 B.C.E. Introduced more reformsWanted to makes Athens a full democracy and break up nobilityIncreased power of assemblyAnyone allowed to propose lawsCouncil of 500Proposed lawsCounseled the assemblyChosen by lotCreated limited democracyPisistratus 546 B.C.E.TyrantProvided funds to help peasants buy farm equipmentFinanced reform by a tax on agricultural productionMassive building programGave jobs to poorEarned him support of poor
16Women Only males could participate in Assembly Women were “imperfect beings” without the ability to reasonWealthy women lived in seclusion in homes and managed household.Poor women tended sheep, were spinners or weavers.
17Education Girls received no education Boys attend school if affordable Studied reading, writing, poetry, and musicStudied public speakingReceived military training
19Darius I of PersiaAngry at an insult, sent messengers into Greece asking for gifts of “earth and water”Most city-states obeyedAthens and Sparta did not submitUnited Greece
20Persian Wars500 B.C. Athens was wealthiest city-state and had helped Ionian Greeks rebel against PersiaPersians crushed the rebel citiesDarius wanted to punish the AtheniansSent the Persian army, landed at MarathonPersian War united Athens and Sparta against the Persian EmpireBattle at Marathon490 B.C.E.Persian fleet lands with 25,000 menGreek phalanx destroyed the PersiansAthens was defenselessPheidippides “raced” back to Athens to warn the citySaved the city
23Xerxes After Darius’ death, his son Xerxes wanted revenge 480 B.C. brought a larger force to GreeceMet resistance with a small force of Spartans at ThermopylaeLed by King LeonidasGreeks divided and weak300 Spartans sacrificedthemselves at Battle ofThermopylae
25Battle of Salamis Battle at Salamis After defeating the Spartans, marched to Athens and burned it to the groundAthenians had already leftThemistocles had built ships to help defend Greece after MarathonGreeks lured the Persians ships into the straight of Salamis and tore them to piecesBattle at Salamisdestroyed the Persian fleet1/3 sankLeft Greeks in control of the Aegean SeaGreeks then marched into Asia Minor and ended the Persian invasionSpartans finally defeated Persians at Plataea 479 B.C.E.
26Themistocles An Athenian army commander, statesman, and archon Designed the Piraeus naval harborNever popular with fellow citizens despite being the hero of Battle of SalamisOstracized in 470 B.C. and was sentenced to deathCommitted suicide 460 B.C.
27United Greece Athens emerged most powerful city-state Organized an alliance with other city-states called the Delian agreementAthens emerges in a position of strengthAthens was pursuing aggressive policies against neighboring stateAthens was moving towards democracyPericles will come to power and take Athens’ into its Golden Age.
28RewindWho?The united Greek city-states vs. the Persian Empire. Greece Wins!!!!When?499 B.C.E. – 449 B.C.E.Why?Control of the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas and the economic advantages that go along with controlling the seas.Major Battles?2 Major Battles were at Marathon and Salamis. The Greeks defeated the Persians in both.Results of WarAthens emerges as the dominant power in Greece after the formation of the Delian League. The Delian League was an alliance between Athens and other Greek city-states (not Sparta) that made Athens wealthy and powerful.
29Revisit Objectives Standard WHI.5 Essential Questions Students will be able to demonstrate knowledge of ancient Greece in terms of its impact on Western civilization by:Identifying the social structure and role of slavery, and comparing the city-states of Athens and SpartaEvaluating the significance of the Persian warsEssential QuestionsHow did Sparta differ from Athens?Why were wars with Persia important to the development of Greek culture?