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Chapter 5 Classical Greece Unit 2: Warring City-States World History Core.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 Classical Greece Unit 2: Warring City-States World History Core."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5 Classical Greece Unit 2: Warring City-States World History Core

2 Main Idea Power and Authority –The growth of city-states in Greece led to the development of several political systems, including democracy

3 Why it matters now? Many political systems in today’s world mirror the varied forms of government that evolved in Greece

4 Terms and Names Polis Acropolis Monarchy Aristocracy Oligarchy Tyrant Democracy Helot Phalanx Persian Wars

5 Setting the Stage Dorian period Greece experienced a decline 2 things changed: –1. Developed a new personal culture (not ancestral) –2. Government changed from tribal to more formal city-state structure

6 Rule and Order in Greek City-States 750 BC, city-states (POLIS) was the political unit in Greece –Made up of a city and its surrounding country – square miles –Fewer than 10,000 residents –People gathered in two spots to discuss government 1. AGORA: Marketplace 2. ACROPOLIS: Fortified hilltop

7 Athenian agora to the left Greek acropolis to the right

8 Rule and Order in Greek City-States Greek Political Structure MonarchyAristocracyOligarchyDirect Democracy State ruled by a king Rule is hereditary Some rulers claim divine right Practiced in Mycenae by 2000BC State ruled by nobility Rule is hereditary and based on family ties, social rank, and wealth Social status and wealth support rulers’ authority Practiced by Athens prior to 594BC State ruled by a small group of citizens Rule is based on wealth or ability Ruling group controls military Practiced by Sparta by 500BC State ruled by its citizens Rule is based on citizenship Majority rule decides vote Practiced by Athens by about 500BC

9 Rule and Order in Greek City-States Tyrants Seize Power Many clashes about power in city-states between common people and nobility Tyrants: individuals who seized control of government by appealing to the common people for support –Work for interest of ordinary people (unlike today)

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11 Athens Builds Limited Democracy Representative government took hold in Athens Rich and poor clashed BUT solved issues quickly –Moved toward DEMOCRACY (rule by the people) Citizens participated directly

12 Athens Builds Limited Democracy Building a Democracy Steps towards democracy –1. Draco: 621BC Developed a legal code based on Athenian idea, rich and poor equal under the law Extremely harsh with criminals and types of punishment Had debt slavery

13 Athens Builds Limited Democracy Steps toward democracy con’t. –2. Solon: 594BC Outlawed debt slavery Organized Athens into four social groups –Only citizens in the top three levels can hold public office All citizens participated in government –Athenian Assembly Bring charges against a wrongdoer

14 Athens Builds Limited Democracy Steps towards democracy con’t 2 –3. Cleisthenes: 500BC Broke up power of nobility by organizing citizens in ten groups based on where they lived rather than wealth Increased power of assembly by allowing all citizens to present laws for debate and passage Council of 500 –Proposed laws and counseled assembly –Members chosen by lot Citizenship: free, adult males, who owned property –Women, slaves, foreigners were excluded and had few rights

15 Athens Builds Limited Democracy Athenian Education Sons of wealthy received formal education –Age 7 –Prepared to be good citizens –Reading, grammar, poetry, history, math, and music –Expected to debate in assembly also taught logic and public speaking (rhetoric) –Important to develop and train body – so they also spent each day in athletic activities Military school when older (duty of citizens) Girls educated at home by moms –Child rearing, cloth weaving, cooking, clean house, and to be good wives/mothers –Few learned to read and write

16 Ancient Athens

17 SPARTA

18 Sparta Builds A Military State Located on the Peloponnesus Cut off by rest of Greece by Gulf of Corinth Completely different from much of Greece, especially Athens Built a military state Sparta Dominates Messenians 725BC Sparta conquered Messina and neighboring lands –Messenians became HELOTS (peasants forced to stay on land they worked) Had to give ½ of crops to Spartans Messenians revolted in 650BC-Sparta barely won=VOWED TO BE STRONGER

19 Sparta Builds A Military State Sparta’s Government and Society Branches of government: –1. Assembly: all Spartan citizens and elected officials. Voted on major issues proposed by Council of Elders –2. Council of Elders: 30 older citizens Proposed laws to Assembly –3. 5 Elected Officials carried out laws passed by Assembly –4. Two Kings In charge of military

20 Sparta Builds A Military State Sparta’s Government and Society con’t. Social Groups –1. Citizens: descendants of original inhabitants Included ruling families who owned land –2. Noncitizens: were free, worked in commerce and industry –3. Helots: little better than slaves, field workers or home servants

21 Sparta Builds A Military State Spartan Daily Life BC Sparta had strongest Army –No personal expression RESULT: didn’t value art, literature, or intellect –VALUED: duty, strength, and discipline over freedom, individuality, beauty, and learning –Men in Army till 60 years old (life centered on training)

22 Sparta Builds A Military State Spartan Daily Life Con’t. Age 7: moved into Army barracks –Stayed until 30 –Daily Life: marching, exercising, and fighting –Only light tunics and no shoes –Slept without blankets and on hard surfaces –Little food (encourage to steal for more) Age 30: join military Age 60: Council of Elders

23 Sparta Builds A Military State Spartan Daily Life Con’t 2. –Girls: Received military training, put love for Sparta above all (even family) –“Come back with your shield or on it.” –Women: Much freedom (run estate while husbands gone)

24 Persian Wars Greatest danger Athens and Sparta faced was the invasion of Greece by the Persians A New Kind of Army Emerges Shift from bronze to iron weapons made military service more affordable PHALANX: military formation –Became the most powerful fighting force in the ancient world Side by side, locking shields, and holding spears = moved as one.

25 Persian Wars Battle of Marathon Persian Wars began in Ionia on the coast of Anatolia –Persians attacked Ionia –Athens sent ships of aid the Ionians (Greeks) –Persian King Darius defeated Ionians and vowed to destroy Athens (for interfering) 490BC Persian fleets cross the Aegean Sea with 25,000 men and landed on the northeast plain of Athens called Marathon –Waiting were 10,000 Athenians in the phalanx –Persians defeated: they wore light armor and were not use to the land –Several hours later the Persians fled

26 Persian Wars Pheidippides Brings News Fearing the Persians would retreat to Athens the leaders of the Army sent a young messenger to send word to Athens of victory Pheidippides ran 26 miles –When he reached Athens he yelled “Nike” (Goddess of Victory) –Collapsed and died The Athenians got to Athens in time to see the Persians getting closer and defended the city

27 Persian Wars Thermopylae and Salamis 10 years later Xerxes (Darius’ son) assembles Army to crush Athens Greeks were divided –1. Fought with Athens –2. Fought with Persians –3. Didn’t fight – thought if Persians defeated Athens they would leave Greece Xerxes’ army met little resistance

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29 Persian Wars Thermopylae and Salamis con’t Thermopylae –Narrow mountain pass –7000 Greeks (300 Spartans) Stopped Persian advance for three days Traitor gave Xerxes the location of the secret path Spartans held Persians while other retreated

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31 Persian Wars Thermopylae and Salamis con’t 2 Salamis –Thermistocles (Athenian leader) got Greeks to turn the war into a sea battle –Positioned boats in narrow passage called Salamis Persian ships were to large to turn in channel and the Greeks used that to their advantage and defeated the Persians –479 BC crushed Persians in Battle of Plataea

32 Persian Wars Thermopylae and Salamis con’t 3 Greeks formed the Delian League: city- state alliance –Took name from island of Delos where the headquarters were located –City-states gave money and ships to belong to the League

33 Consequences of Persian Wars New sense of confidence and freedom Athens emerges as leaders of Delian League –200 member states –Will become little more than provinces to Athens –Will use power over other league members –Moved headquarters from Delos to Athens Burst of wealth in Athens will lead to its Golden Age

34 Olympics


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