Presentation on theme: "Ancient Greece: The Development of Athenian Democracy L12 & R12."— Presentation transcript:
Ancient Greece: The Development of Athenian Democracy L12 & R12
NEXT The City-State By 750 B.C. the Greek city-state, or polis, is the formal government A polis is a city and its surrounding villages; 50 to 500 square miles Population of a city-state is often less than 10,000 Citizens gather in the marketplace and acropolis—a fortified hilltop Continued... athens_greec e.jpgathens_greec e.jpgImage
NEXT Greek Political Structures City-states have different forms of government Monarchy—rule by a king; aristocracy— rule by nobility Oligarchy—rule by small group of powerful merchants and artisans Tyrants Seize Power Rulers and common people clash in many city-states Tyrants—nobles and wealthy citizens win support of common people They seize control and rule in the interests of ordinary people
Rise of Athenian Democracy Draco: 621 BC, instituted a strict code of laws that could not be misinterpreted by aristocrats. After Draco the Areopagus (council of elite) became the dominate fixture in Greek politics. The Areopagus elected nine officials: Archons
Solon: became leader of Athens in 594 BC. Cancelled all land debts and freed debtors from slavery to improve economic conditions. Allowed all citizens of all classes to participate in the Assembly and public law courts, while an aristocratic Council of 400 proposed laws to the Assembly.
Cleisthenes: Came to power in 508 BC. In 507 BC Cleisthenes introduced a new constitution that made the Assembly the major political body. All citizens could belong to the Assembly, where they were considered equal before the law and guaranteed the freedom of speech.
Athenian Democracy A council of 500 open to any citizen, carried out daily government business. Members of the Council were chosen by lottery rather than election.
Jury System Athenian juries ranged from 201 to 1001 members with a majority vote needed to reach a verdict.
Ostracism A system in which any politician would be exiled if his name was submitted on 6,000 clay tablets called ostraca.
Cleisthenes’ democracy only affected the 20 percent of Athenians who were citizens. Non-citizens-women, foreign- born males, and slaves- were excluded from political life.
The Persian Wars A New Kind of Army Emerges Cheaper iron replaces bronze, making arms and armor cheaper Leads to new kind of army; includes soldiers from all classes Phalanx—feared by all, formation of soldiers with spears, shields Battle at Marathon Persian Wars—between Greece and Persian Empire—begin in Ionia Persian army led by Xerxes attacks Athens, is defeated at Marathon in 490 B.C.
The Persian Wars Thermopylae and Salamis In 480 B.C., Persians launch new invasion of Greece Greeks are divided; many stay neutral or side with Persians Greek forces hold Thermopylae for three days before retreating Athenians defeat Persians at sea, near island of Salamis Victories at Salamis and Plataea force Persian retreat Many city-states form Delian League and continue to fight Persians Phidippides Brings News Runner Phidippides races to Athens to announce Greek victory
NEXT The Persian Wars Consequences of the Persian Wars New self-confidence in Greece due to victory Athens emerges as leader of Delian League Athens controls the league by using force against opponents League members essentially become provinces of Athenian empire Stage is set for a dazzling burst of creativity in Athens
The Golden Age of Athens 461 to 429 BC Athens experiences great achievements in the arts and sciences
Pericles in Charge In the 450s BC, Pericles leads Athens through its Golden Age. The Parthenon was built on the Acropolis during his rule.
A week after birth, a male child was given a name and enrolled as a citizen. Males received formal education because they were expected to participate in government, while Athenian girls did not receive a formal education. Athenian Education The training or education an Athenian received depended on social and economic status.
Athenian males entered school at age 7 and graduated at age 18. Athenian Education An Athenian girl learned household duties, such as weaving and baking, from her mother.
When young Athenian men reached 18, they left for two years of military service. Athenian Education Males studied Homer’s epics, arithmetic, geometry, drawing, music, and gymnastics. When they entered their teens, they also studied rhetoric – or the art of public speaking.
L12 Create a flow chart that shows the development of democracy in Athens. Use either words, symbols, or pictures to depict the importance of each person in developing Athenian Democracy.