2 Ancient Greek Society Early Greek society was broken into two groups Free peopleAdult males; usually wealthy and landownersConsidered to be citizens w/ rights and responsibility for civic participation in the city-stateSlavesNot based on race/colorHad no political rights and were the property of the wealthyWomen and foreigners have no political rightsWomen rarely seen in Greek public life
3 Daily Life in Greece Daily life very different for men, women & slaves For Men – life based around the agoraExpected to participate in conversation of the cityExpected to serve in military and be educatedFor women – life based in the homeNot expected to be educatedExpected to stay in the home and tend to childrenFor Slaves – life based on doing daily choresExpected to run the errands of the homeExpected to protect the family while men are away
4 Forms of Government Many different ways to govern a city-state Monarchy – ruling by a king or queen (usually king)1st way most Greek city states were ruledAristocracy – rule by small group of wealthy land ownersUsually gained power and land from a former kingOligarchy – rule by a few powerful peopleUsually military leaders or a person with a strong armyTyranny – rule by one very powerful personUsually came to power by appealing to the poor and starting a revolution against the rich
5 The Emergence of Sparta Spartan society was far different from AthensWas located on the Peloponnesus peninsulaSpartans took over lands near them to expand their empire for foodPeople conquered forced towork their own land- called helotsHelots revolted and almostdefeated SpartansDue to revolt the Spartansbuild a strong military state
6 Spartan Government Spartan government was an oligarchy Rule by a few strong military leadersTwo powerful kings ruled Sparta at all timesUnder the kings were two other groupsThe assembly – free adult males & elected officialsVoted on the major issues of SpartaCouncil of Elders – those who were elder statesmenProposed and carried out the approved laws of SpartaAlso in charge of education and the court system
7 Spartan SocietyUpper Class – those who were family of the original people of Sparta (original land owners)Citizens usually had to pass a physical test to become a citizenIf a person failed they became a Middle Class citizenMiddle Class – non-citizens but were free peoplePeople worked industrial or commerce jobs (building/selling)Lower Class – Helots – those forced to work their own land, but conquered by SpartansWere seen as just slightly better than slaves (farmers mainly)Slaves – those who were owned by wealthy land owners of the Upper ClassDid the chores of the home, etc.
8 Spartan Society (cont’d) Women held a higher status in Sparta v. AthensIf they passed a physical test they were citizens tooAble to be seen in society if a citizenOther Greek city-states questioned this roleSpartan BabiesBabies that were thought to be unfit would be left on mountaintops or tossed away by the fatherUnfit babies includes:Deformed, undersized, or anything not considered strong
9 Spartan Education Education differed for males and females Women were given some education in SpartaFor the boys – life centered on military trainingAround age 7 boys would be taken to a barracksTraining would last for next yearsHeads were shaved and their clothes and food was sparseTrained to fight, kill and always put Sparta before selfFor the girls – education involved many thingsGirls taught to run, wrestle and play sportsAlso focused on placing Sparta before themselvesNeither boys or girls focused on the arts, or other skills such as orating (speaking)
10 The Emergence of Athens Located on the Balkan peninsulaWas controlled by the Mycenaeans until they were weakened by the Trojan WarWas first ruled by a monarchyLater switched to aristocracyRule by a few rich landownersFor a short period of timethey were under tyrannyEventually they created alimited democracy
11 The Athenian Democracy Athenians created a democracy to avoid a warProblems b/w rich and poor were growingSame problems were similar all through GreeceSolon and Cleisthenes both help reform AthensOnly free adult males were part of democracyMakes it a limited democracy- limited peopleAlso a direct democracy- people vote, majority rulesWomen, foreigners, slaves not allowed to voteNot given citizenship or rights either
12 Athenian SocietyAthenian society was based on education, arts and knowledgeSociety had 2 classes based on wealth/landCitizen Class- those who owned land and were able to vote and participate in the governmentNon-citizen Class- all non-land owners, slaves and foreign people in the city-state of GreeceWomen had no rights to vote and mainly stayed in the home to deal with cooking, cleaning, childrenCould be a citizen if her husband was, but could not vote
13 Athenian Education Education in Athens was the most important Focused on reading, writing, math, and speakingAlso focused on philosophy and musicFor the boys-Boys were taught from age 6-7 in the arts at schoolsWent to 4 additional years of school around age 18Were expected to serve 2 years in the militaryFor the girls-Girls were taught to read and write at homeAlso taught how to weave, cook , etc.
14 Sparta v. Athens Neither area like the other Both thought they were better than the otherSparta had the stronger ArmyAthens had the stronger NavyAthens had the smarter, more rounded peopleSparta had the better fightersWomen had a larger role in Sparta and could be citizens- if they passed the physical testWomen of Athens were only citizens if husband was