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Chapter 5 Section 2 Notes.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 Section 2 Notes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5 Section 2 Notes

2 I. Rule and order in Greek City-States

3 A. Polis was the local city-state and its surrounding farmland

4 B. Acropolis was the fortified hilltop in a city-state


6 Acropolis at Athens

7 Acropolis at Athens

8 Parthanon at Athens

9 C. Political structure

10 1. In some city-states a king or monarchy ruled

11 2. Aristocracy was a government ruled by a small group of nobles

12 3. An oligarchy was a government ruled by a few powerful people

13 D. New kind of army developed

14 1. Iron was more common than bronze , cheaper more people could afford it

15 2. More people from different classes

16 3. Foot soldiers called hoplites stood side by side and formed the phalanx

17 Greek Phalanx

18 Todays Phalanx

19 E. Tyrants Seize Power

20 1. Gained control by appealing to the poor and discontent

21 II. Sparta Builds a Military State

22 Acropolis at Sparta

23 A. Sparta was located on the Peloponnesus

24 B. Sparta conquered the Messinians which were the local people around Sparta

25 1. The Messinians became known as Helots (farmers)

26 2. The Messinians outnumbered the Spartans

27 3. Spartans developed a Military State

28 C. Sparta’s Government and Society

29 1. Two groups ruled Sparta

30 a. An assembly composed of free adult males and elected officials

31 b. Second group Council of Elders

32 1. Five elected officials called Ephors carried out the laws

33 D. Spartan Education

34 1. For Men

35 a. Daily life centered around military training

36 b. Age 7 boys left home for military camps

37 c. Rigorous training

38 d. Intense discipline

39 2. For Girls

40 a. Service to Sparta above love of family

41 b. Did not have right to vote

42 c. Raise healthy babies

43 3. Most powerful army in Greece

44 a. Suppressed individual expression

45 b. Did not value art

46 c. Not much freedom  

47 III. Athens Builds a Limited Democracy

48 A. Athens located on the Hellas

49 B. Democracy : a state ruled by the people

50 1. Direct Democracy is where people vote directly for issues

51 2. Representative Democracy is where people elect others to rule for them also called a republic

52 C. Only free adult males could vote

53 D. Athenians were in to art, philosophy , and the fine thing of life

54 E. Political Reformers

55 1. 621 Draco records the first legal code for Greece

56 2. Solon outlaws debt slavery in 594 B.C.

57 3. Solon also introduced the legal concept that any citizen could bring legal charges against wrongdoers

58 4. Pisistratus in 546 provided funds for farmers to buy back their farms from nobles

59 5. Cleisthenes in 508 B.C. reorganizes the assembly to break up the power of the nobles.

60 a. Creates the Council of Five Hundred

61 F. These political reforms kept Athenian farmers from revolution and led to Athens becoming a democracy

62 IV. The Persian Wars

63 A. Began at the city of Miletus on the Ionian peninsula

64 B. Darius I was the Persian king who would lead his armies against the Greeks

65 C. In 490 B.C. Darius leads a fleet of 25,000 troops against the Greeks at the Battle of Marathon

66 1. The Greeks use the fighting formation called a phalanx

67 2. Pheidipppides races back to Athens 26
2. Pheidipppides races back to Athens 26.2 miles away to summon the Spartans that are there.

68 3. The Greeks would win at the Battle of Marathon

69 D. In 480 B.C. Xerxes the son of Darius leads a massive force some 75,000 Persians to the Battle of Thermopylae on the northern Hellas against 7000 Greeks

70 1. Some 300 Spartans fight to the death for three days before 25,000
1. Some 300 Spartans fight to the death for three days before 25,000 Persians finally break through

71 2. Now the Persians head towards Athens

72 3. The Athenians head to a nearby island called Salamis

73 E. The Battle of Salamis

74 1. The Persians follow the Athenians towards the island and the
1. The Persians follow the Athenians towards the island and the Athenians sink about one third of the remaining Persians Army

75 2. Some Persians land on the island but are quickly killed by the Spartans who are there waiting

76 3. Never again do the Persians come back

77 F. Consequences of the Persian Wars

78 1. The Greeks no longer fight against the Persians, fight against
1. The Greeks no longer fight against the Persians, fight against each other

79 2. The Athenians create the Delian League on the island of Delos

80 a. People of the Hellas and islands off the Hellas

81 3. The Spartans create the Peloponnesian League as a defense against the Delian League

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