Presentation on theme: "Persian War. King Darrius I -King Darius initiated the Persian Wars, to expand his empire to Greece. -He also wanted to punish the Athenians and the Eretrians."— Presentation transcript:
King Darrius I -King Darius initiated the Persian Wars, to expand his empire to Greece. -He also wanted to punish the Athenians and the Eretrians for their part in the Ionian Revolt. -He began the First Persian Invasion around 510 BCE -Darius began planning the Second Invasion, but died and his son Xerxes took over.
There were 4 major battles in this era between the allied Greek city-states and the Persians. 1)Battle of Marathon 2)Battle of Thermopylae 3)Battle of Salamis 4)Battle of Plataea Before we continue with the battles, lets explore their weapons and battle techniques. GreeksPersians
Phalanx A Greek formation of infantry carrying overlapping shields and long spears; developed by Philip II of Macedon and used by Alexander the Great
Hoplite Soldiers Hoplite soldiers were Greek citizen-soldiers. They were responsible for supplying their own weapons. Greek hoplon shield, which the hoplites were named after.
Triremes Boat with 3 levels of oars 170 oarsmen in total
Battle of Marathon Location of The Plains of Marathon Persian Infantry (likely Immortals) The Plains of Marathon today Darius I of Persia (490 BC)
Battle of Thermopylae Thermopylae Today Location of Thermopylae Hoplites in Phalanx Formation Xerxes I of Persia (480 BC)
Leonidas -Spartan King -Lead the Spartans in the battle of Thermopylae -Consulted the Oracle of Delphi -Died at the battle of Thermopylae Xerxes -Persian King, son of Darius I -Lead the Persians in the battle of Thermopylae.-Also known as Xerxes The Great -Against Persian tradition he was not the eldest son of Darrius
Battle of Salamis Themistocles Darius I of Persia Location of troops (480 B.C.)
Oracle at Delphi Temple of Delphi, home of the priestess Plythia (the Oracle)
“Salamis will bring death to women’s sons..... But a wooden wall would save the greeks”
Themistocles -Politician and General. -Name translates to: "Glory of the Law". -Fought in the Second Persian Invasion and the Battle of Salami. -Accused of treason to the Spartans -Exiled to Argos and became a governor of Magnesia, in Persia
Battle of Plataea Greek disk displaying a fight between a Greek hoplite and a Persian warrior Main movement of the Plataea battle when the Greeks became disorganized and the Persians attacked Location of the Plataea Battle (479 B.C.)
Persian Empire Video Start at 3:20 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yZlqgtdQoH o&app=desktop
The Persian Empire -The Persian Empire was one of the largest areas of its time, spanning about eight million square kilometres. -The Persians were one of the first civilizations to use currency as opposed to bartering, and also instituted official languages. -They also created the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, a wonder of the world. -The Persians were the first to use petroleum oil.
Athens V.S. Sparta Most powerful city-states of the Helenian world (Greece) Athenian warrior Spartan warrior
Two main geographic factors in development of Grecian city-states. Sea- Easy access to water naturally made all of the city-states excel at seamanship, trading and exploring. Geographic Factors
Mountains- The steep landscape made travel by land difficult so communication between the city-states was limited. Because of this they developed independently, creating drastic differences in values and beliefs in each.
Athenian Society Spartan Society 12 years of military training (age 6-18) Parents did not raise children Citizenship if you passed physical exam at age 18 for both men and women Literature (reading and writing) not important to education Physical education was key War focused Women have more rights/freedom Women could leave home Girls had same education as boys 2 years of military training (for boys) Parents raised children Citizenship automatic for boys, none for girls Literature (reading and writing) was crucial Some physical education Art/culture focused Women have little rights/freedom Women could not leave home Girls had less education
Citizens could vote, had lots of political influence Military rank determined by social class Military service was optional Valued wisdom, culture, honour and chivalry Democracy Citizens with certain qualifications could vote, had some political influence Military rank determined by skill Military service was mandatory until age of 60 Valued strength, obedience, endurance and self discipline Oligarchy (Small amount of people have power) Athenian Spartan Society Society
Nationalism These differences in values between the Athenians and the Spartans caused a lot of disagreements and they could not agree on a political leader which would have united them. The city- states kept to themselves and did not work together very well. They constantly struggled for power with each other except for when common enemies, such as the Persian Empire, temporarily united them.
Significance of the Greco-Persian Wars -The buildings after the destruction of the Acropolis are the ruins we see today. -The threat of a Persian invasion brought unity among the Greeks. -Democracy as we know it today.