7 Ionian RevoltsGreece set up colonies in Asia Minor on the border of the Persian Empire.Persian Empire expanded and invaded the Greek coloniesGreek colonies (Ionia) asked for help from some of the city-statesGreek city-states sent a Navy to fight the Persians. After initial success they left the Ionians to finish the fight.The Ionians were defeated and Persia then set its eyes on mainland Greece and the city-states there.
8 Persian Wars (Greco-Persian Wars) Fought between the Persian Empire and the Greek City-StatesTime Period: B.C.E.Location: Greece and Asia MinorThe Persians had expanded their empire from the Middle East, to Africa (Egypt), South East Asia, and Asia Minor. An invasion of Greece would be next.
10 Advantages at the start PersiaGreecePowerful ArmyLarge Population and lots of soldiersConquered areas fought for PersiaWeapons and ResourcesUnited city-statesSame languageFighting on their own soilBanding together against a common enemyBalance of great Army and Navy
11 Famous Battles of the Persian Wars Battle of Marathon490 B.C.E.Battle of Thermopylae and Salamis480 B.C.E.Battle of Plateau479 B.C.E.
12 Persian warsA series of wars fought between the Greek city-states and the Persian Empire between B.C.E.
13 PolisA Greek City-State Example: Athens, Corinth, Sparta, Thebes, Delphi, Olympia, etc.AlliesStates that agree to help each otheragainst a common enemyExample:Athens and Sparta put aside differences to fight a common enemy
14 Athenians, Spartans Corinthians and Persians Someone from the Greek City-State of AthensSomeone from the Greek City-State of SpartaSomeone from the Greek City-State of CorinthSomeone from the Empire of Persia
15 Persian empire The largest empire the world had seen up to this time. Persia ruled overAfrica, the MiddleEast and Asia.
16 Hoplite-Hoplite –Greek civilian/soldier named after the shields they would carry. Weapon of choice: Spear with a bronze tip and Iron Sword
17 Persian War Important Figures King DariusKing of the Persian Empire who invaded Greece at the start of the Persian Wars. Led Persia in the Battle of MarathonKing XerxesKing of the Persian Empire after Darius who continued fighting versus the Greek city-states. Led Persia at Battle of Thermopylae and the rest of the Persian Wars.MiltiadesAthenian General who helped lead the Greek City-States to victory at the Battle of MarathonLeonidasSpartan King who led 300 Spartans and other allied soldiers at the Battle of Thermopylae. They were heavily outnumbered but fought heroically to help delay Persia’s invasion
18 More Important figures ● Herodotus- Famous Greek Historian who wrote about the Persians Wars. Also known as the “Father of History” ● Pheidippides- Greek messenger who ran from Marathon to Athens to warn them about a Persian Invasion.Themistocles – Famous Athenian Naval commander and politician who helped lead Greece to victory against the Persians at the Battle of Salamis
19 Ancient Military terms Cavalry- Soldiers who fought on horsebackTrireme - An ancient Greek wooden warship with 3 rows of oars on each side of the shipPhalanx- close knit fighting formation perfected by the Greeks where they would interlock their shields and march/fight shoulder to shoulder with one another.Weapons on the battlefield-Bow and ArrowsSwordsSpearsJavelins
21 Other important Vocabulary words Hellespont- the strait between the Aegean and the Sea of Marmara that separates European Turkey from Asian Turkey where Persia set up pontoons and marched their troops across. Present day called the DardenellesIsolationism – A policy of avoiding political and economical relations with other placesColonies- A settlement set up in a distant placeIonian Revolt- A rebellion by Greek colonies set up in Asia Minor to not follow the rule of the Persian Empire. These events in 499 B.C.E. marked the beginning of the Persian Wars.
22 Battles of the Persian Wars Battle of Marathon- Athens defeats the Persians at Marathon in 490 B.C.E. Battle of Thermopylae – 300 Spartans (and 6,000+ allied soldiers) led by King Leonidas who fought to the death at Thermopylae against the might Persian Empire in 480 B.C.E. Battle of Salamis –Naval battle near the Island of Salamis where the Greeks defeated the Persians led by Naval Commander Themistocles. Battle of Plateau – Decisive Battle that ended the Persian Wars and Persia’s attempt at conquering Greece in 479 B.C.E.