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Classical Civilizations. Cyrus the Great First King of Persia Captured Babylon in 539 BCE Reputation for Mercy Cyrus’ son: Cambysees, conquered Egypt,

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Presentation on theme: "Classical Civilizations. Cyrus the Great First King of Persia Captured Babylon in 539 BCE Reputation for Mercy Cyrus’ son: Cambysees, conquered Egypt,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Classical Civilizations

2 Cyrus the Great First King of Persia Captured Babylon in 539 BCE Reputation for Mercy Cyrus’ son: Cambysees, conquered Egypt, – Darius, next ruler, conquered Indus River

3 Open Society Incorporated different cultures Encouraged trade throughout empire Freedom of Religion

4 Persian Empire: Administration Satrapy: Province in Persian Empire – Satrap: Provincial Governor Royal Road: road which stretched from one end of the empire to the other

5 Royal Road

6 Persian Empire: Religion Zoroastrianism Founder: Zoroaster Holy Book: Zend Avesta God: Ahura Mazda – Dual Forces: – Good: Spenta Mainyu – Bad: Agra Mainyu

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8 Greece

9 Greece: Origins Minoans: Original Greek speaking kingdom Island of Crete

10 Mycenaeans Group of people from Central Asia Settled in mainland Greece

11 Greek Colonies

12 Governments City-States Athens: Direct Democracy Sparta: Absolute Monarchy

13 Greek Culture All city states shared same culture, language, and religion

14 Athens Direct Democracy: all citizens vote on all issues – BUT: “Citizens” were only men who owned property Trading Economy Strong navy

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16 Sparta Absolute Monarchy: King has complete control over the entire country Entire city-state created around being a soldier Best soldiers the world has ever seen Women had more rights Economy based on Agriculture – Helots: slaves who worked the land

17 Persian Wars

18 Phalanx Greek army formation Men standing next to each other with interlocking shields with spears

19 Back to Persian Wars Battles: 1. Marathon 2. Thermopylae 3. Salamis

20 1. Marathon (August 490 BCE) Persians attack Greece Persians: – 600 ships – 20,000 infantry and cavalry Greece (mostly Athens) – 10,000 infantry – Greek Hoplites

21 Persian Soldiers Average Persian soldierImmortals

22 2. Thermopylae (480 BCE) Xerxes (next king of Persia) wanted revenge for Marathon ,000 soldiers invade Greece 7,000 Greek soldiers – 300 Spartans

23 Thermopylae today

24 Held off Persian Army for 7 days

25 Battle of Salamis Athenian citizens escape to island of Salamis Persians go after them with ships

26 Greece must unite Who will lead them?

27 Peloponnesian Wars Persians are defeated, but they will be back

28 Athens Vs. Sparta Delian League (Athens) – Alliance between Athens and other Greek city- states Sparta and Allies – Tried to unite all of Greece by military conquest

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30 WAR!!! Athens Vs. Sparta Sparta needs help Who will assist them?

31 Eventually Sparta wins, but at great cost Cannot conquer Greece, lost too many soldiers Greece is peaceful but greatly weakened

32 Leads to new Conquest

33 Philip II of Macedonia Macedonia: outside kingdom that adopted Greek culture, language, and religion Philip II: Conquers all of Greece and unites them into 1 army – Plans to invade Persian Empire – Assassinated before being able to

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