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Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Government and Party Politics Section 1 Ch6: The New Republic 1789-1816.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Government and Party Politics Section 1 Ch6: The New Republic 1789-1816."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Government and Party Politics Section 1 Ch6: The New Republic

2 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics In 1789, the leaders of the new government gathered in New York City. The newly ratified Constitution was entirely untested. How did debate over the role of government lead to the formation of political parties? The Framers and President Washington knew that a good start was essential to the future of the republic.

3 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics When George Washington took office, he quickly established precedents for running the government. The new President faced many challenges: The nation was $52 million in debt. There was no navy and the army had only 400 men. Spain closed the Mississippi River to American trade. British troops occupied American land along the Great Lakes.

4 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics Washington picked a Cabinet to head each of four executive departments in his administration. Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson Secretary of War Henry Knox Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton Attorney General Edmund Randolph

5 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics The first task was to set up a court system. The Judiciary Act of 1789 created federal courts and a six-member Supreme Court. The office of Attorney General was created to prosecute legal cases for the government. John Jay was appointed as first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.

6 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics The huge debt was the biggest problem facing the administration. Treasury Secretary Hamilton suggested a controversial plan. Rather than just pay off the federal debt, state debts would also be assumed. Bonds for the total would be sold to wealthy investors. The investors would receive annual dividends and have a stake in helping the government succeed.

7 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics Hamilton also proposed chartering a Bank of the United States to regulate state banks and insure business support. He hoped to replace the nation’s agriculturally based economy with commerce and manufacturing. He proposed a high tariff or tax on imported goods to earn revenue and encourage domestic industry.

8 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics Hamilton saw 3 advantages to his financial plan 3 The plan would enrich investors who would reinvest and thus create more wealth. The plan would gain political support from the wealthiest Americans. 2 The plan would establish the nation’s financial credibility. 1

9 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics Wealth would be redistributed from farmers to merchants, and from the South to the North. Investors who purchased the bonds would make huge profits at everyone else’s expense. The costs would fall on farmers who would have to pay taxes and tariffs. Antifederalists objected to Hamilton’s plan. They had 3 main complaints: 1 2 3

10 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics Most southern states had already paid off their war debts. He asked why they should bail out northern states that still had debts. Jefferson believed the plan gave more power to the government than the Constitution permits. Secretary of State Jefferson opposed Hamilton’s plan.

11 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics Hamilton favored a loose construction of the Constitution. Congress has implied powers, and can take any actions not specifically forbidden. The Constitution allows Congress to act for the “general welfare” so it could charter a bank. Jefferson favored a strict construction of the Constitution. Congress should be limited to the powers specifically granted by the Constitution. The Constitution does not give Congress power to charter a national bank, so it could not establish one

12 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics In 1791, Congress accepted Hamilton’s plan. In return, a new national capital was created. Washington D.C. would be placed in the South, on the banks of the Potomac River. The national debt was funded, state debts were assumed, taxes and tariffs were levied, and the bank was authorized.

13 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics An excise tax on whiskey led to divisions between the Federalists and the Antifederalists. To increase their profits, western Pennsylvania farmers made whiskey from their grain. The whiskey tax reminded farmers of British taxes. In 1794, some farmers resisted payment. They harassed and intimidated tax collectors.

14 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics Hamilton persuaded Washington to suppress the Whiskey Rebellion. Twelve thousand militiamen were sent to deal with the rebellion, but they found no organized insurrection. Then Jefferson criticized Hamilton for the use of federal force to repress legitimate criticism.

15 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics Despite Washington’s disapproval, two political parties emerged. Democratic Republicans Favored Jefferson and Madison. This party was strongest among Southerners and farmers. Federalists Favored Hamilton and was strongest among Northerners, merchants, and the wealthy.

16 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics How did foreign policy challenges affect political debate and shape American government? The nation had to make peace with Native Americans, control its borders, and establish itself internationally. Renewed war between Britain and France threatened neutrality. Americans debated the right response to the European war and to the French Revolution.

17 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics The new nation faced challenges on its Northwestern frontier The British continued to man forts along the Great Lakes and supplied Indian tribes with guns. In 1790 and 1791, Miami Chief Little Turtle defeated American forces, halting expansion into the Ohio River Valley.

18 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics In 1794, General Anthony Wayne defeated Native Americans in the Battle of Fallen Timbers. The resulting Treaty of Greenville gave the United States control of Ohio.

19 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics In 1789, Americans were divided by the French Revolution. Federalists worried about the anarchy and public executions. Hamilton feared Democratic Republicans might want to do the same in America. Jefferson decried the violence but publicly admired the French Revolution’s principles.

20 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics Americans worried about the British and French war as most of America’s imports and tariff revenue came from British goods. But Britain ignored him and began seizing American trading ships at sea. Americans were outraged but powerless to respond. President Washington issued a proclamation of neutrality in 1793.

21 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics The resulting Jay Treaty was narrowly approved by the Senate. Federalists praised it, but Democratic Republicans attacked it. Britain agreed to give up forts on American soil, but Americans had to repay pre- Revolutionary War debts still owed to Britain. Restrictions remained on American shipping, which angered many Americans. Washington sent John Jay to London in 1794 to negotiate.

22 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics A more popular treaty was negotiated with Spain in The Pinckney Treaty allowed Americans to use the Mississippi River and the port of New Orleans. With access to the Mississippi, removal of the British, and defeat of the Native Americans, settlers poured into the west. 400,000 Americans lived beyond the Appalachians by the 1800s.

23 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics President Washington chose to retire in He felt that voluntary retirement after two terms would set an important precedent for the peaceful transfer of the office. In his farewell address, Washington advised successors to strive for national unity. In foreign affairs, he suggested Americans avoid “entangling alliances” with European powers.

24 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics As first President, Washington: Established the government Opened western land for settlers Kept the nation out of war Developed foreign trade Put the nation on solid financial footing. Washington helped the young nation survive early tests.

25 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics He narrowly defeated Thomas Jefferson who became his vice president. The vote was largely along regional lines with the North favoring Adams, the South favoring Jefferson. John Adams was elected President in 1796.

26 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics Americans were angered and insulted by this XYZ Affair and sentiment against France grew. French officials identified only as X, Y, and Z demanded bribes for the right to negotiate. Like Britain, France began seizing American ships. Adams sent envoys to negotiate. Early in his presidency, Adams faced a crisis with France.

27 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics In 1798 Congress passed the Alien and Sedition Acts making it a crime to criticize the government. Immigrants, most of whom tended to favor Democratic Republicans, could be deported. The Federalists claimed the acts were necessary to stop unhealthy criticism that was undermining trust in the government. Democratic Republicans charged the acts violated the Constitution and were aimed to silence the opposition.

28 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics They suggested that states can “nullify” or reject unconstitutional laws. In 1798 and 1799, Jefferson and Madison attacked the Sedition Act as unconstitutional in the Virginia and Kentucky resolutions.

29 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics Shortly before the 1800 election, President Adams sought peace with France. This angered other Federalists, including Alexander Hamilton who then worked against Adams’ bid for re-election. Despite a tie in the electoral college, Thomas Jefferson won the presidency.

30 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics The election of 1800 marked an important precedent as the first peaceful transfer of power from one political party to another. The election of 1800 changed the balance of power and ended the Federalist era in government.

31 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics What were the successes and failures of the Jefferson administrations? In 1800, the Democratic Republicans took control of the presidency, Congress, and most of the state governments. The Federalists would never reclaim national power. The Jefferson administration changed the style of government and acquired a huge new territory for the United States.

32 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics In office, Jefferson reduced the national debt, the government bureaucracy, and the size of the military. He also cut unpopular taxes on land and whiskey. He benefited from increased revenues from foreign trade and the sale of western lands.

33 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics In 1801, John Marshall became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Marshall served 35 years and participated in over a thousand court decisions. Marshall wrote over half of those decisions himself, more than any other Supreme Court Justice.

34 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics The Court’s role is to determine if acts of Congress or the President are constitutional, a concept known as judicial review. Federal laws are superior to state laws. The Constitution is to be interpreted broadly based on the government’s implied powers. Contracts should be strictly enforced. Marshall applied four Federalist principles to his decisions:

35 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics Marshall established judicial review in Marbury v. Madison In 1801, outgoing President John Adams appointed William Marbury (Federalist) to be a judge. Incoming Secretary of State James Madison (Democratic Republican) refused to give Marbury his appointment, so Marbury sued. Marshall ruled against Marbury stating that the Judiciary Act of 1789 was unconstitutional.

36 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics Marshall’s ruling was a stroke of genius that gave the court more power which was a Federalist goal. Because Madison and the Democratic Republicans won the case, he could not appeal. Marshall’s decision set the precedent that the Supreme Court is the institution that determines the constitutionality of laws (judicial review).

37 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics In 1803, Jefferson doubled the area of the United States by purchasing the Louisiana Territory. Jefferson saw farm ownership as an ideal that freed citizens from a landlord or employer. He wanted to expand the U.S. westward so more Americans could be free farmers. But, French Emperor Napoleon owned Louisiana and threatened to forbid Americans from using the port of New Orleans.

38 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics Jefferson asked to buy New Orleans. To his surprise, Napoleon offered to sell the entire Louisiana Territory. Jefferson decided to contradict his “strict construction” principles. (The power to purchase foreign territory is not granted to the president.) The deal was too good to pass up! The Louisiana Purchase added 828,000 square miles and doubled the U.S. for only $15 million.

39 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics

40 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics Jefferson sent a “Corps of Discovery” led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the territory. They were tasked with learning about the climate, plants, seeds, animals, and native people. The Lewis and Clark Expedition was aided by Sacajawea, a Shoshone woman.

41 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics Jefferson faced several foreign affairs challenges. In 1805, the Barbary state of Tripoli raised their price for “protection” against pirates. Jefferson refused to pay, sending his small navy instead. They defeated the pirates. This Barbary War was America’s first overseas victory.

42 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics War between France and Britain brought profits for American merchants but also led to trouble. The British Navy began stopping American ships and confiscating their cargo. To meet a shortage of sailors, they also began to force or “press” American sailors to serve in the British Navy, a practice called impressment.

43 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics The embargo failed to hurt Britain, but American merchants and farmers suffered from unemployment, bankruptcy, and loss of profits. Despite the failure of the embargo, the U.S. expanded westward, grew economically, and reduced its debt. Jefferson asked Congress for an embargo, hoping a loss of American goods would change Britain’s policies.

44 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics What were the successes and failures of the Jefferson administrations? In 1800, the Democratic Republicans took control of the presidency, Congress, and most of the state governments. The Federalists would never reclaim national power. The Jefferson administration changed the style of government and acquired a huge new territory for the United States.

45 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics In office, Jefferson reduced the national debt, the government bureaucracy, and the size of the military. He also cut unpopular taxes on land and whiskey. He benefited from increased revenues from foreign trade and the sale of western lands.

46 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics In 1801, John Marshall became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Marshall served 35 years and participated in over a thousand court decisions. Marshall wrote over half of those decisions himself, more than any other Supreme Court Justice.

47 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics The Court’s role is to determine if acts of Congress or the President are constitutional, a concept known as judicial review. Federal laws are superior to state laws. The Constitution is to be interpreted broadly based on the government’s implied powers. Contracts should be strictly enforced. Marshall applied four Federalist principles to his decisions:

48 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics Marshall established judicial review in Marbury v. Madison In 1801, outgoing President John Adams appointed William Marbury (Federalist) to be a judge. Incoming Secretary of State James Madison (Democratic Republican) refused to give Marbury his appointment, so Marbury sued. Marshall ruled against Marbury stating that the Judiciary Act of 1789 was unconstitutional.

49 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics Marshall’s ruling was a stroke of genius that gave the court more power which was a Federalist goal. Because Madison and the Democratic Republicans won the case, he could not appeal. Marshall’s decision set the precedent that the Supreme Court is the institution that determines the constitutionality of laws (judicial review).

50 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics In 1803, Jefferson doubled the area of the United States by purchasing the Louisiana Territory. Jefferson saw farm ownership as an ideal that freed citizens from a landlord or employer. He wanted to expand the U.S. westward so more Americans could be free farmers. But, French Emperor Napoleon owned Louisiana and threatened to forbid Americans from using the port of New Orleans.

51 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics Jefferson asked to buy New Orleans. To his surprise, Napoleon offered to sell the entire Louisiana Territory. Jefferson decided to contradict his “strict construction” principles. (The power to purchase foreign territory is not granted to the president.) The deal was too good to pass up! The Louisiana Purchase added 828,000 square miles and doubled the U.S. for only $15 million.

52 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics

53 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics Jefferson sent a “Corps of Discovery” led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the territory. They were tasked with learning about the climate, plants, seeds, animals, and native people. The Lewis and Clark Expedition was aided by Sacajawea, a Shoshone woman.

54 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics Jefferson faced several foreign affairs challenges. In 1805, the Barbary state of Tripoli raised their price for “protection” against pirates. Jefferson refused to pay, sending his small navy instead. They defeated the pirates. This Barbary War was America’s first overseas victory.

55 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics War between France and Britain brought profits for American merchants but also led to trouble. The British Navy began stopping American ships and confiscating their cargo. To meet a shortage of sailors, they also began to force or “press” American sailors to serve in the British Navy, a practice called impressment.

56 Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Section 1 Government and Party Politics The embargo failed to hurt Britain, but American merchants and farmers suffered from unemployment, bankruptcy, and loss of profits. Despite the failure of the embargo, the U.S. expanded westward, grew economically, and reduced its debt. Jefferson asked Congress for an embargo, hoping a loss of American goods would change Britain’s policies.


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