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TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Washington and Political Parties.

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Presentation on theme: "TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Washington and Political Parties."— Presentation transcript:

1 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Washington and Political Parties

2 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Describe the steps Washington’s administration took to build the federal government. Analyze Hamilton’s plans for the economy and the opposition to them. Explain how a two-party system emerged in the new nation. Objectives

3 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Terms and People administration – the officials in the executive branch of government precedent – an act or statement that becomes a tradition to be followed Cabinet – the officials who head the major executive departments and advise the President tariff – a tax on imported goods loose construction – a broad interpretation of the Constitution relying on the implied powers of Congress

4 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Terms and People (continued) strict construction – a narrow interpretation of the Constitution that limits Congress’s actions only to powers specifically granted by the Constitution Whiskey Rebellion – a 1794 protest by farmers in western Pennsylvania against an excise tax on whiskey political party – a group that seeks to win elections, hold public office and shape policy Democratic Republicans – a political party that emerged in opposition Hamilton’s economic policies

5 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. In 1789, the leaders of the new government gathered in New York City. The newly ratified Constitution was entirely untested. How did debate over the role of government lead to the formation of political parties? The Framers and President Washington knew that a good start was essential to the future of the republic.

6 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. In 1789, George Washington traveled from Virginia to New York City, the nation’s first capital, to be inaugurated as the first President of the United States. When Washington took office, he quickly established precedents for running the government.

7 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. The new President faced many challenges. The nation was $52 million in debt. There was no navy and the army had only 400 men. Spain closed the Mississippi River in New Orleans to American trade. British troops occupied American land along the Great Lakes.

8 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Washington picked a Cabinet to head each of four executive departments in his administration. Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson Secretary of War Henry Knox Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton Attorney General Edmund Randolph

9 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. One of the first tasks was to set up a court system. The Judiciary Act of 1789 created district and circuit courts and a six-member Supreme Court. The office of Attorney General was created to prosecute legal cases for the government. John Jay was appointed as first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.

10 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. The huge debt was the biggest problem facing the administration. Treasury Secretary Hamilton suggested a controversial plan. Rather than just pay off the federal debt, the federal government would also assume state debts. Bonds for the total would be sold to wealthy investors. The investors would receive annual dividends and have a stake in helping the government succeed.

11 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Hamilton also proposed chartering a Bank of the United States to regulate state banks and insure business support. He hoped to replace the nation’s agriculturally based economy with commerce and manufacturing. He proposed a high tariff or tax on imported goods to earn revenue and encourage domestic industry.

12 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Hamilton saw three advantages to his financial plan 3 The plan would enrich investors who would reinvest and thus create more wealth. The plan would gain political support from the wealthiest Americans. 2 The plan would establish the nation’s financial credibility. 1

13 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Wealth would be redistributed from farmers to merchants, and from the South to the North. Investors who purchased the bonds would make huge profits at everyone else’s expense. The costs would fall on farmers who would have to pay excise taxes and higher tariffs. Antifederalists objected to Hamilton’s plan. They had three main complaints

14 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Most southern states had already paid off their war debts. He asked why they should bail out northern states that still had debts. Jefferson believed the plan gave more power to the government than the Constitution permits. Secretary of State Jefferson opposed Hamilton’s plan.

15 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Hamilton favored a loose construction of the Constitution. Congress has implied powers, and can take any actions not specifically forbidden. The Constitution allows Congress to act for the general welfare so it could charter a bank. Jefferson favored a strict construction of the Constitution. Congress should be limited to the powers specifically granted by the Constitution. The Constitution does not give Congress power to charter a national bank, so it could not establish one.

16 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. In 1791, Congress accepted Hamilton’s plan. The national debt was funded, outstanding state debts were assumed, excise taxes and tariffs were levied, and the bank was authorized. In return, a new national capital was created. The capital, Washington, D.C., would be in the South, on the banks of the Potomac River.

17 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. An excise tax on whiskey sparked a challenge to federal authority. To increase their profits, western Pennsylvania farmers made whiskey from their grain. The whiskey tax reminded farmers of British taxes. In 1794, some farmers resisted payment. They harassed and intimidated tax collectors.

18 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Hamilton persuaded Washington to suppress the Whiskey Rebellion. Twelve thousand militiamen were sent to deal with the rebellion, but they found no organized insurrection. Then Jefferson criticized Hamilton for the use of federal force to repress legitimate criticism.

19 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Federalists (led by Hamilton) This party was strongest among Northerners, merchants, and the wealthy. Democratic Republicans (led by Jefferson) This party was strongest among Southerners and farmers. Although Washington warned against political parties, two parties emerged.

20 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Federalists Democratic Republicans Favored strong central government Thought states should have more power Favored loose construction of Constitution. Favored strict construction of Constitution Wanted economy based on manufacturing and trade. Wanted economy based on farming Were pro-BritishWere pro-French


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