Presentation on theme: "The Age of Jefferson. Understand why some saw Jefferson’s election as a “republican revolution.” Explain the impact of John Marshall’s tenure as Chief."— Presentation transcript:
The Age of Jefferson
Understand why some saw Jefferson’s election as a “republican revolution.” Explain the impact of John Marshall’s tenure as Chief Justice of the United States. Identify the importance of the Louisiana Purchase. Analyze Jefferson’s foreign policies. Objectives
Terms and People bureaucracy – the departments and workers that make up the government John Marshall – Federalist Chief Justice who established the Court’s power of judicial review judicial review – the power to decide if an act of Congress or the President is constitutional Marbury v. Madison – 1803 Supreme Court case that established the Court as the final judge of the constitutionality of congressional actions
Terms and People (continued) Louisiana Purchase – land between the Mississippi River and Rocky Mountains bought by the U.S. from France in Lewis and Clark Expedition – “Corps of Discovery” sent by Jefferson to explore the Louisiana Territory Barbary War – action against Barbary pirates who demanded protection money for U.S. shipping in the Mediterranean Sea
Terms and People (continued) embargo – a government order suspending trade, usually to force some action impressment – practice of forcing American for U.S. shipping in the Mediterranean sailors to serve in the British navy
What were the successes and failures of the Jefferson administrations? In 1800, the Democratic Republicans took control of the presidency, Congress, and most of the state governments. The Federalists would never reclaim national power. The Jefferson administration changed the style of government and acquired a huge new territory for the United States.
Map 11-1 p204
Jefferson and his running mate, Aaron Burr, received the same number of electoral votes According to the Constitution, the House of Representatives would decide After much debate, the Federalist controlled House chose Thomas Jefferson
Significance Peaceful transfer of power from one party to another
Thomas Jefferson viewed his election as a revolution in the principles of government. Federalists held expensive public displays to gain respect for the government. Jefferson ended these as aristocratic threats to the republic. Where the Federalists discouraged public criticism, Jefferson invited debate and discussion.
In office, Jefferson reduced the national debt, the government bureaucracy, and the size of the military. He also cut unpopular taxes on land and whiskey. He benefited from increased revenues from foreign trade and the sale of western lands.
In 1801, John Marshall became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. A last-minute appointee, Marshall eventually served 35 years and participated in over a thousand court decisions. Marshall wrote over half of those decisions himself, more than any other Supreme Court Justice.
Marbury v. Madison (1803) Background In 1801, in the last days of his presidency, President Adams appointed various people to the Federal courts. These were known as “midnight judges.” Jefferson and his Secretary of State, James Madison, opposed these appointments One appointee, William Marbury, sued for his appointment Under the Judiciary Act, the case went to the Supreme Court
Issues in the case 1. Does Marbury have a right to the commission? 2. If he has a right, and that right has been violated, do the laws of his country afford him a remedy? 3. If they do afford him a remedy, is it a mandamus (command) issuing from this court?
Ruling 1.Yes 2.2. Yes 3. No. The Court did not have the power to do this, because the part of the Judiciary Act that gave it the power to do so was unconstitutional. (The Constitution only gave the Supreme Court original jurisdiction in certain cases)
The Court’s role is to determine if acts of Congress or the President are constitutional, a concept known as judicial review. Federal laws are superior to state laws. The Constitution is to be interpreted broadly based on the government’s implied powers. Contracts should be strictly enforced. Marshall applied four Federalist principles to his decisions:
Marshall established judicial review in Marbury v. Madison In 1801, outgoing President John Adams appointed William Marbury (Federalist) to be a judge. Incoming Secretary of State James Madison (Democratic Republican) refused to give Marbury his appointment, so Marbury sued. Marshall ruled against Marbury stating that the Judiciary Act of 1789 was unconstitutional.
Marshall’s ruling was a stroke of genius that gave the court more power which was a Federalist goal. Because Madison and the Democratic Republicans won the case, he could not appeal. Marshall’s decision set the precedent that the Supreme Court is the institution that determines the constitutionality of laws (judicial review).
In 1803, Jefferson doubled the area of the United States by purchasing the Louisiana Territory. Jefferson saw farm ownership as an ideal that freed citizens from a landlord or employer. He wanted to expand the U.S. westward so more Americans could be free farmers. But, French Emperor Napoleon owned Louisiana and threatened to forbid American farmers from using the port of New Orleans.
Jefferson asked to buy New Orleans. To his surprise, Napoleon offered to sell the entire Louisiana Territory. Jefferson decided to contradict his “strict construction” principles. (The power to purchase foreign territory is not specifically granted by the Constitution.) The deal was too good to pass up! The Louisiana Purchase added 828,000 square miles and doubled the U.S. for only $15 million.
Jefferson sent a “Corps of Discovery” led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the territory. The corps was tasked with learning about the climate, plants, seeds, animals, and native people. The Lewis and Clark Expedition was aided by Sacajawea, a Shoshone woman.
Jefferson faced several foreign affairs challenges. In 1805, the Barbary state of Tripoli raised their price for “protection” against pirates. Jefferson refused to pay, sending his small navy instead. They defeated the pirates. This Barbary War was America’s first overseas victory.
War between France and Britain brought profits for American merchants but also led to trouble. The British Navy began stopping American ships and confiscating their cargo. To meet a shortage of sailors, they also began to force or “press” American sailors to serve in the British Navy, a practice called impressment.
The embargo failed to hurt Britain, but American merchants and farmers suffered from unemployment, bankruptcy, and loss of profits. Despite the failure of the embargo, the U.S. expanded westward, grew economically, and reduced its debt. Jefferson asked Congress for an embargo, hoping a loss of American goods would change Britain’s policies.