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TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Jefferson Administration.

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Presentation on theme: "TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Jefferson Administration."— Presentation transcript:

1 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Jefferson Administration

2 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Objectives Understand why some saw Jefferson’s election as a “republican revolution.” Explain the impact of John Marshall’s tenure as Chief Justice of the United States. Identify the importance of the Louisiana Purchase. Analyze Jefferson’s foreign policies.

3 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Terms and People bureaucracy – the departments and workers that make up the government John Marshall – Federalist Chief Justice who established the Court’s power of judicial review judicial review – the power to decide if an act of Congress or the President is constitutional Marbury v. Madison – 1803 Supreme Court case that established the Court as the final judge of the constitutionality of congressional actions

4 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Terms and People (continued) Louisiana Purchase – land between the Mississippi River and Rocky Mountains bought by the U.S. from France in Lewis and Clark Expedition – “Corps of Discovery” sent by Jefferson to explore the Louisiana Territory Barbary War – action from 1801 to 1805 against Barbary pirates who demanded protection money for U.S. shipping in the Mediterranean Sea

5 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Terms and People (continued) embargo – a government order suspending trade, usually to force some action impressment – practice of forcing American for U.S. shipping in the Mediterranean sailors to serve in the British navy

6 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. What were the successes and failures of the Jefferson administrations? In 1800, the Democratic Republicans took control of the presidency, Congress, and most of the state governments. The Federalists would never reclaim national power. The Jefferson administration changed the style of government and acquired a huge new territory for the United States.

7 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Thomas Jefferson viewed his election as a revolution in the principles of government. Federalists had held expensive public displays to gain respect for the government. Jefferson ended these as aristocratic threats to the republic. Where the Federalists discouraged public criticism, Jefferson invited debate and discussion.

8 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. In office, Jefferson reduced the national debt, the government bureaucracy, and the size of the military. He also cut unpopular taxes on land and whiskey. He benefited from increased revenues from foreign trade and the sale of western lands.

9 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. In 1801, John Marshall became Chief Justice and redefined the role of the Supreme Court. A last-minute Federalist appointee, Marshall eventually served 35 years and participated in over a thousand court decisions. Marshall wrote over half of those decisions himself, more than any other Supreme Court Justice.

10 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. The Court’s role is to determine if acts of Congress or the President are constitutional, a concept known as judicial review. Federal laws are superior to state laws. The Constitution is to be interpreted broadly based on the government’s implied powers. Contracts should be strictly enforced. Marshall applied four Federalist principles to his decisions

11 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Marshall established judicial review in Marbury v. Madison In 1801, outgoing President John Adams appointed William Marbury (Federalist) to be a judge. Incoming Secretary of State James Madison (Democratic Republican) refused to give Marbury his appointment, so Marbury sued. In ruling against Marbury, Marshall also ruled that part of the Judiciary Act of 1789 was unconstitutional.

12 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Marshall’s ruling gave the court more power, which was a Federalist goal. Because Madison and the Democratic Republicans won the case, he could not appeal. Marshall’s decision set the precedent that the Supreme Court is the institution that determines the constitutionality of laws (judicial review).

13 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. In 1803, Jefferson doubled the area of the United States by purchasing the Louisiana Territory. Jefferson saw farm ownership as an ideal that freed citizens from a landlord or employer. He wanted to expand the United States westward so more Americans could be free farmers. But, French Emperor Napoleon owned Louisiana and threatened to forbid American farmers from using the port of New Orleans.

14 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Jefferson asked to buy New Orleans. To his surprise, Napoleon offered to sell the entire Louisiana Territory. The deal was so good that Jefferson decided to contradict his “strict construction” principles. (The power to purchase foreign territory is not specifically granted by the Constitution.) The Louisiana Purchase added 828,000 square miles and doubled the United States for only $15 million.

15 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.

16 Jefferson sent a “Corps of Discovery” led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the territory. The corps was tasked with learning about the climate, plants, seeds, animals, and native people. The Lewis and Clark Expedition was aided by Sacajawea, a Shoshone woman.

17 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Jefferson faced several foreign affairs challenges. In 1805, the Barbary state of Tripoli raised their price for “protection” against pirates. Jefferson refused to pay, sending his small navy instead. They defeated the pirates. This Barbary War was America’s first overseas victory.

18 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. War between France and Britain brought profits for American merchants but also led to trouble. The British Navy began stopping American ships and confiscating their cargo. To meet a shortage of sailors, they also began to force or “press” American sailors to serve in the British Navy, a practice called impressment.

19 TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. The embargo failed to hurt Britain, but American merchants and farmers suffered from unemployment, bankruptcy, and loss of profits. Despite the failure of the embargo, the United States expanded westward, grew economically, and reduced its debt. Jefferson asked Congress for an embargo, hoping a loss of American goods would change Britain’s policies.


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