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America’s First President George Washington set many precedents while in office 1789-1797 Watch the following film clip and identify the precedents set.

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Presentation on theme: "America’s First President George Washington set many precedents while in office 1789-1797 Watch the following film clip and identify the precedents set."— Presentation transcript:

1 America’s First President George Washington set many precedents while in office 1789-1797 Watch the following film clip and identify the precedents set

2 Problems during the Washington Administration (1789 – 1797)

3 The French Revolution  U.S. and France had signed Treaty of Alliance in 1778 – help to US during American Revolution;  France expected US help during the French Revolution  1793 – President Washington issued Proclamation of Neutrality – not in the best interest of US to choose sides in French Revolution

4 Treaty with Spain Spain controlled Florida and Louisiana Territory Pinckney Treaty (Treaty of San Lorenzo)- 1795 Spain gave up claims to land east of Mississippi River (except Florida) 31 st parallel boundary Allowed Americans to use Mississippi River and port at New Orleans (right of deposit)

5 Problems with Native Americans Native Americans did not recognize the terms of the Treaty of Paris (1783) & wanted to negotiate with US government over tribal claims US military forces defeated the Miami Confederacy at the Battle of Fallen Timbers, ending Native American resistance in Ohio Treaty of Greenville – Miami agreed to give up land in Ohio in exchange for $20,000 in goods, and annual payment of $10,000.

6 Jay’s Treaty Negotiated by John Jay (1794) in attempt to resolve issue of British forts that remained in Northwest Territory British agreed to evacuate these forts Very unpopular with Americans but it did prevent war between US and Great Britain

7 What precedents were set during Washington’s Administration? Washington named a cabinet of advisors Jefferson was named Secretary of State Hamilton was appointed Secretary of the Treasury Knox became Secretary of War Randolph was named Attorney General

8 Congress passed the Judiciary Act of 1789 Created 13 Federal District Courts Created 3 Circuit Courts of Appeal Supreme Court would have 1 Chief Justice and 5 Associate Justices Allowed state court decisions to be appealed to federal court when constitutional issues were raised. Gave the Supreme Court the power to issue a writ of mandamus (power to order government official to perform duties)

9 Hamilton helped develop a financial plan for the new nation Federal assumption of the state debt and full payment of all debt Creation of a Bank of the United States Protective tariffs to encourage American industries Excise taxes to raise money (excise tax on whiskey)

10 Controversy Resolved through Compromise Some states objected to the Federal government’s plan to assume payment of the state debt In a compromise, the states agreed to the repayment of the debt in exchange for relocating the nation’s capital from New York City temporarily to Philadelphia and then to the current location in the District of Columbia

11 The Whiskey Rebellion Farmers in western Pennsylvania refused to pay the excise tax on Whiskey Washington accompanied the troops into Pennsylvania to stop the rebellion and collect the tax by force if necessary The rebellion collapsed when troops arrived

12 Compare Shays’ Rebellion and the Whiskey Rebellion During Shays’ Rebellion the national government did not have the power to stop the rebellion (no national army, no national executive) The Whiskey Rebellion demonstrated that the new government under the Constitution did have the power to enforce its laws, with force if necessary

13 Differing Political Opinions – Views on Government Hamilton Strong central gov’t Gov’t by “the rich, the well- born, and the able ” Jefferson Strong state gov’t Limit power of national gov’t “The Common Man”

14 Funding debts (National & State) Hamilton Full payment of federal & state debt Establish good credit Jefferson Pay only national debt Don’t interfere with state rights

15 Bank of the United States Hamilton Support BUS Use the elastic clause to stretch money related powers “loose interpretation” Jefferson Opposed BUS Not in Constitution Would favor wealthy “Strict interpretation”

16 Excise Tax on Whiskey Hamilton Support tax Raise money to pay debt Jefferson Opposed tax Would hurt common farmers’ incomes

17 Basis of the Economy Hamilton Industry Jefferson Agriculture

18 Protective Tariff Hamilton Supported would protect American industries from foreign competition Jefferson Opposed – would raise prices and wouldn’t benefit common man

19 Response to the French Revolution Hamilton Support British – value of trade Avoid too much democracy Jefferson Support French – we inspired ideas of democracy

20 Political Party most closely associated with Hamilton Federalist Jefferson Democratic- Republican

21 Washington set precedents in foreign policy Issued the Proclamation of Neutrality in 1793 during the ongoing French Revolution Neutrality and Isolation become the basis of U.S. Foreign Policy for the next 150 years

22 Washington’s Foreign Policy (continued) Treaties signed with England and Spain were intended to maintain peace for the United States Jay’s Treaty with Britain did little to remove British troops from U.S. soil but kept the U.S. out of war Pinckney’s Treaty with Spain established the right of the U.S. to use the Mississippi River and “right of deposit” at New Orleans

23 Foreign Policy Miami Confederacy Use of military force to break the Native American power and allow westward expansion and settlement

24 Washington’s Foreign Policy (continued) Washington’s Farewell Address warned the country of 2 concerns Avoid political parties – they tend to divide the country Avoid “entangling” alliances – short term, temporary alliances are better for the country

25 The 2-term Presidency Washington set the precedent of serving only 2 terms and then retiring This precedent was followed by every President up to FDR, who was elected for 4 terms in office In 1951, the 22 nd Amendment to the U.S Constitution made the 2-term Presidency a part of the written Constitution

26 American History: “Portraits of Power” (video clip)

27 Why do you think historians rate Washington a “great” President?

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