Presentation on theme: "BRITISH AND AMERICAN REVOLUTIONS Chapter 20. Elizabeth I Recognized the importance of the good will of the people – and of parliament. She once said."— Presentation transcript:
Elizabeth I Recognized the importance of the good will of the people – and of parliament. She once said “Though God has raised me high, yet this I account the glory of the crown, that I have reigned with your loves.” Died in 1603 without an heir
James I The son of Elizabeth’s first cousin, Mary, Queen of Scots Also King of Scotland while assumed throne of England. Was an well educated man, but was a poor judge of people and political situations (unlike Elizabeth) He was not used to the strong presence of parliament which created a series of conflicts
Divine Right of Kings Believed that king derives power directly from God and such power is absolute. “Kings are not only God’s lieutenants upon earth and sit upon God’s throne, but even by God himself they are called Gods... I will not be content that my power be disputed on.”
Conflicts with Parliament Constant conflicts Asking for money Spent huge sums on himself and his advisors for luxury items Resorted to collecting money by selling titles to the nobility Wiki Wiki
Religion and Monarchy Most English people members of Church of England Strong opposition from the Puritans. Called upon the church to reform. Petitioned James I but rejected and forced to conform to the Church of England
Political Environment Oppositional 1. Conflicts between the the crown and parliament 2. Conflicts from the people because of religion 3. The people had grown accustom to Elizabeth’s concern to the people - She ruled with benevolence (- organized for the purpose of doing good).
Charles I Son of James I – inherits 1625 after father’s death. Ruled with same “divine right of kings” attitude which created the same political environment as his father Also had problems with parliament Asked for money to finance a war with Spain but parliament rejected Raised money by forcing landowners to give the government “loans” or the king would put them in jail.
Petition of Right People outraged by king’s behaviour Also angry because Charles demanded the people lodge troops into private homes. Parliament sought changes offered approval of additional taxes to support the war (as the king wished) but he would have to sign the Petition of Right which severely limited his power
Limited power Forbidden to collect taxes or force loans Not allowed to imprison without just cause Troops could not be housed in a private home against the will of the owner Not declare martial law unless country was at war.
Dissolved Parliament signed the petition but refused to follow Instead dissolved parliament and didn’t call upon them for 11 years Continued to collect taxes and imprison opponents
Deepened the Religious Q Named William Laud to be Archbishop, the leading official of the Church of England. Began persecution of Puritans Denied them the right to preach or publish Some were punished through public whippings Great Migration – exodus from England 1630 – 1643 Spread attention to Scotland – Tried to force the Calvinist Church of Scotland to accept the England’s prayer book. Rejected and formed the National Convenant that vowed to preserve their religious freedom Prepared to go to war
Civil War begins Growing political unrest + denying religious freedoms (which angered the masses) = civil war By 1640, Scots invaded England in need of money. Forces Charles I to recall parliament (first time in 11 years) Ireland specifically, was tired of the English taking their land and giving it to English and Scottish settlers. The Irish rebelled. Charles found himself in a pickle of situation, with both Ireland and Scotland rebelling and constant conflict with the Puritan-controlled Parliament.
Royalist As Puritans gained control in Parliament, a royalist or pro-monarchy group formed in Parliament. This group was made up of people who supported the king and opposed Puritan control of the Church of England. Despite resistance from this group, Parliament sent Charles “Nineteen Propositions”
Civil War Cavaliers - King’s army, also included nobles and landowners. Mostly belonged to the north and west of the country. Roundheads- Drew their strength from the south and east of England. Many of them had close-cropped hair. Parliament organized its military forces under the leadership of Oliver Cromwell. Religios, brilliant military leader, led severel decisive victories After four years of conflict, the king surrendered (1647). He was given tried, sentenced and executed.
A new government Declared a commonwealth state, governed by a elected representatives. But parliament refused to hold new elections. Meanwhile, Cromwell continued to gain power as he crushed the Irish and Scottish rebellions. Cromwell was tired of waiting for reform from the parliament, so he took parliament himself. This lasted five years, as a military dictator. He enforced strict Puritan rules. After his death, his son Richard took over, but lacked his father’s leadership.
Reformed Monarchy People were tired of the constant change in government. Didn’t want civil wars, military dictators and unhappy Puritan restrictions. Parliament reestablished the monarchy, BUT the idea of representative government would survive. A king would still rule England, but no king would have absolute power again.
Hmmm….? Group discussion What might start a revolution today?
The Merry Monarch Charles II had faced danger during the civil war as well as during Cromwell’s rule. But when England returned to a monarchy, Charles II returned to London on May 29, 1660. Everyone celebrated. His return to the throne was called restoration. Because of the sharp contrast between Charles II and Cromwell’s rule, Charles was known as the Merry Monarch. He supported the arts, sciences, and entertainment (dance, sports and theatre)
Religious Q Secretly favoured Catholicism but accepted Church of England. Hoped for religious toleration. But left the responsibility of solving the religious question to parliament 1661 a new parliament was elected. Called the “Cavalier Parliament” because of the large majority of royalists. Passed acts known as the Clarendon Code – Only Anglicans could attend universities, serve in Parliament or hold religious services. Puritan clergy driven from churches.
Limited Power The restoration gave England a constitutional monarchy ( a monarchy limited by a constitution). Constitution made up of several documents – Magna Carta, Petition of Right, and other laws and customs. The king did not agree with limited power but did not fight Parliament for any changes, as he acknowledged it would most likely end in his father’s fate.
Exclusion bill 1679 Parliament drafted the Exclusion bill to avoid James becoming king ( in fear of the rise of Catholicism). Those who wanted to exclude James, were known as the Whigs. Those who defended hereditary monarchy were called Tories. Also drafted habeas corpus which stated that a person could not be held in prison without just cause or without trial.
Introduction of Political Parties The debate over who would succeed Charles II created a divide between Catholics and Protestents. Had no legitimate children, therefore the throne was left to his brother James II -( this adds flavour to the religious question because James is a practicing catholic and is looking for reform).
James II Charles died 1685, and James did become king. James wanted absolute power and claimed that he had the power to suspend the law. He appointed Catholics to parliament and university positions and allowed all Christian religions to worship freely.
Glorious Revolution The members of Parliament were alarmed, but decided to wait until James death, and then the throne would pass to his protestant daughter Mary. But then, James second wife had a son that would be raised Catholic. Both Whig and Tories pleaded for Mary to take over the crown (along with her husband William of Orange of Netherlands). Mary did so, and claimed the throne without battle or bloodshed.
New limits on Royal Power Mary sworn to agree to the laws and customs established by their royal ancestors. Bill of rights King could not raise taxes or maintain an army without consent of Parliament Also Parliament held often, and allowed the freedom of debate in Parliament Guaranteed certain individual rights; trial by jury, outlawed cruel and unusual punishment, limited amount of bail for those waiting for trail. Most importantly citizens were given the right to appeal to the king and to speak freely in Parliament. The creation of this bill was a reaction to James II who tried to increase his power.
Act of Settlement excluded Catholics from inheriting the throne. Since James also led the Irish Catholics to revolt, Parliament also passed laws that excluded the Catholic majority in Ireland from government and business.
Parliament and the Crown Even though Parliament won a long battle with the Crown, it was not yet a true democracy. Only male landowners could vote ( 250 000 ppl out of 6 million) Therefore Parliament controlled by people of property – nobles, gentry, wealthy merchants and clergy. Head of cabinet later called prime minister, the chief executive of a parliamentary government.
Act of Union 1707 United the two countries into a new nation called Great Britain. English and Scots would now be “British”. This was enacted under Anne’s rule (1702 – 1714). Anne was the sister of Mary who succeeded to the throne.
Test Monday You are responsible for everything in Section 1 & 2 for Chapter 20. Objective – 50% Multiple Choice Matching Fill in the Blanks Essay – 50% Under what circumstances do you think a revolution might occur here in North America? Using the causes of the English Revolution prepare an essay that outlines the causes of a revolution. Study Tip : Answer the questions from Section 1 and 2. These could be possible multiple choice questions.