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Combining Sentences When should you combine sentences? How to combine sentences Inserting words and phrases Using compound subjects and verbs Creating.

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Presentation on theme: "Combining Sentences When should you combine sentences? How to combine sentences Inserting words and phrases Using compound subjects and verbs Creating."— Presentation transcript:

1 Combining Sentences When should you combine sentences? How to combine sentences Inserting words and phrases Using compound subjects and verbs Creating compound sentences Creating complex sentences Review A Review B

2 When should you combine sentences? Too much of the same thing can be boring. Imagine eating the same thing for lunch day...after day...

3 Notice how too many short sentences make this paragraph boring to read. Reading the same type of sentence over and over again can also be boring. A geyser is a spring. A geyser shoots hot water. It shoots water into the air with great force. Some geysers erupt continually. Some remain dormant for long periods. A geyser is a spring that shoots hot water into the air with great force. While some geysers erupt continually, some remain dormant for long periods. [End of Section] When should you combine sentences? Now, see how sentence combining makes the paragraph shorter and more interesting.

4 How to combine sentences Inserting words and phrases Combine short sentences by taking a key word from one sentence and inserting it into the other. Edgar Allan Poe led a short life. His life was tragic.tragic.Edgar Allan Poe led a short,tragiclife. key word You may have to change the form of the word. Poe wrote strange stories. He wrote horror stories. horror Poe wrote strange,horrifying stories. The Tell-Tale Heart

5 How to combine sentences Inserting words and phrases When changing the form of a word, you often add an ending that makes the word an adjective or an adverb. horrorhorrifying NOUNADJECTIVE calmcalmly ADJECTIVEADVERB

6 This car can park easily. It can park in tight spaces. How to combine sentences Inserting words and phrases You can also combine sentences by inserting a phrase from one sentence into another. Participial Phrase Sam swung the bat. He was focusing on the ball. Appositive Phrase There we met Chula. Chula is Sandra’s dog. Prepositional Phrase in tight spaces.This car can park easilyin tight spaces. focusing on the ball. Focusing on the ball, Sam swung the bat. Sandra’s dog. There we met Chula, Sandra’s dog.

7 How to combine sentences Prepositional phrase A prepositional phrase contains beneath a preposition a noun or pronoun = object of the preposition any modifiers of the object leaves the beautiful fall

8 How to combine sentences Participial phrase A participial phrase contains a verb form usually ending in –ing or –ed a noun, pronoun, or adjective = complement of the participle any modifiers feelingconfidentin himself

9 How to combine sentences Appositive phrase An appositive is a word that identifies a nearby noun or pronoun. An appositive phrase consists of an appositive and its modifiers. I gave my mother flowers for her birthday. I gave my mother flowers, a dozen pink tulips, for her birthday. I gave my mother flowers, tulips, for her birthday.

10 How to combine sentences Inserting words and phrases 1.Plants are used to make products. These products are beauty products. 2.Malik ran toward the goal. His pace was quick. (Change quick to quickly.) 3.Migrant workers move constantly. They search for work. (Change search to searching.) Combine the following short sentences by inserting the italicized word or phrase into the first sentence. Add commas where necessary. Hints in parentheses tell how to change word forms.

11 How to combine sentences Inserting words and phrases 1.Plants are used to make beauty products. Combine the following short sentences by inserting the italicized word or phrase into the first sentence. Add commas where necessary. Hints in parentheses tell how to change word forms. The sentences have been combined so that the word beauty modifies products.

12 How to combine sentences Inserting words and phrases 2.Malik ran quickly toward the goal. Combine the following short sentences by inserting the italicized word or phrase into the first sentence. Add commas where necessary. Hints in parentheses tell how to change word forms. Possible Answer The sentences have been combined so that the word quickly modifies ran.

13 3.Searching for work, migrant workers move constantly. How to combine sentences Inserting words and phrases Combine the following short sentences by inserting the italicized word or phrase into the first sentence. Add commas where necessary. Hints in parentheses tell how to change word forms. Possible Answer The sentences have been combined so that the phrase Searching for work modifies workers.

14 How to combine sentences Inserting words and phrases [End of Section] Combine each pair of sentences by inserting words or phrases. Some sentences may be combined in different ways. Hints in parentheses indicate changes to word forms. 1. Squirrels climbed up and down the tree. The tree was old. 2.The docks are at the end of a road. The road curves. (Change curves to curving.) 3.Amy just got braces. Amy is a friend of mine. 4.Book three tells of the heroes’ return. Book three completes the series. (Change complete to completing.) On Your Own

15 How to combine sentences Inserting words and phrases Combine each pair of sentences by inserting words or phrases. Some sentences may be combined in different ways. Hints in parentheses indicate changes to word forms. Possible Answers 1. Squirrels climbed up and down the old tree. 2.The docks are at the end of a curving road. 3.Amy, a friend of mine, just got braces. 4.Completing the series, book three tells of the heroes’ return.

16 How to combine sentences Using compound subjects and verbs You can also combine sentences by making compound subjects and verbs. Step 1. Look for sentences that have the same subject or the same verb. SAME SUBJECT = COMPOUND VERB Ice reduces swelling. Ice relieves pain. Ice reduces swelling. Ice relieves pain. SAME VERB = COMPOUND SUBJECT Jaguars have spots. Leopards have spots. Jaguars have spots. Leopards have spots.

17 How to combine sentences Using compound subjects and verbs Step 2. Join the verbs or subjects of the two sentences with a coordinating conjunction such as and, or, or but.coordinating conjunction Ice reduces swelling.Ice relieves pain. Jaguars have spots.Leopards have spots. IF THEN Subjects are the same Keep the subject and join the verbs Ice reduces swelling and relieves pain. Verbs are the same Keep the verb and join the subjects Jaguars and leopards have spots.

18 How to combine sentences Coordinating conjunctions A coordinating conjunction joins words or groups of words that are used in the same way. Coordinating Conjunctions andbutornor foryetso

19 1.Bananas are a tropical fruit. Coconuts are also a tropical fruit. 2.Ben had planned to be here. Ben later changed his mind. 3.Vince could design the banner. Otherwise, Lan could design it. Combine the following short sentences by forming a compound subject or a compound verb. Be prepared to explain your answers. How to combine sentences Using compound subjects and verbs

20 1.Bananas and coconuts are tropical fruits. Since both sentences had the same verb, the combined sentence has a compound subject. Fruits is plural since the sentence is now about more than one kind of fruit. Combine the following short sentences by forming a compound subject or a compound verb. Be prepared to explain your answers. How to combine sentences Using compound subjects and verbs

21 2.Ben had planned to be here but later changed his mind. Since both sentences had the same subject, the combined sentence has a compound verb. The conjunction but expresses a contrast in ideas. Combine the following short sentences by forming a compound subject or a compound verb. Be prepared to explain your answers. How to combine sentences Using compound subjects and verbs

22 3.Vince or Lan could design the banner. Since both sentences have the same verb, the combined sentence has a compound subject. The conjunction or shows a choice between two possibilities. Combine the following short sentences by forming a compound subject or a compound verb. Be prepared to explain your answers. How to combine sentences Using compound subjects and verbs

23 [End of Section] Combine each pair of sentences by forming a compound subject or a compound verb. 1. Plastic can be recycled. Paper can be recycled. 2.Glaciers move slowly. Glaciers shape the land. 3.A temple may have stood here once. A storehouse may have stood here. 4. Cranes nest near the lake. Other birds nest there, too. 5.The skier jumped far. He failed to beat the record. On Your Own How to combine sentences Using compound subjects and verbs

24 Combine each pair of sentences by forming a compound subject or a compound verb. Possible Answers 1. Plastic and paper can be recycled. 2.Glaciers move slowly and shape the land. 3.A temple or a storehouse stood here once. 4.Cranes and other birds nest near the lake. 5.The skier jumped far but failed to beat the record.

25 How to combine sentences Creating compound sentences If the two sentences are related and equally important, you can form a compound sentence. A compound sentence is made by joining the two sentences with a comma and a coordinating conjunction a semicolon a semicolon and a conjunctive adverbconjunctive adverb OR We went there.They came here. We went there, but they came here.We went there; they came here.We went there; however, they came here.

26 How to combine sentences Conjunctive adverbs A conjunctive adverb shows how ideas relate to each other. It expresses a relationship between two independent clauses. Common Conjunctive Adverbs alsohowevermeanwhilestill besidesinsteadneverthelessthen consequentlylikewiseotherwisetherefore

27 Notice the difference between a compound subject or verb and a compound sentence. In a compound sentence, each half of the sentence has its own subject and its own verb. We went there, but they came here. Subject Verb We went there, but they came here. Subject Verb How to combine sentences Creating compound sentences

28 1.The storm began with heavy rain. Hail fell soon after. 2.A majority of U.S. residents were born here. One out of every ten is an immigrant. 3.The newly discovered animal has a pouch. It may be related to the kangaroo. Combine the following short sentences by forming a compound sentence. Be prepared to explain your answers. How to combine sentences Creating compound sentences

29 1.The storm began with heavy rain, and hail fell soon after. The conjunction and shows that the two ideas are related and equal in importance. Combine the following short sentences by forming a compound sentence. Be prepared to explain your answers. How to combine sentences Creating compound sentences Possible Answer

30 2.A majority of U.S. residents were born here, but one out of every ten is an immigrant. The conjunction but shows that the two ideas contrast. Combine the following short sentences by forming a compound sentence. Be prepared to explain your answers. How to combine sentences Creating compound sentences Possible Answer

31 3.The newly discovered animal has a pouch; therefore, it may be related to the kangaroo. The semicolon shows that the two ideas are closely related. The conjunctive adverb therefore indicates cause and effect. Combine the following short sentences by forming a compound sentence. Be prepared to explain your answers. How to combine sentences Creating compound sentences Possible Answer

32 [End of Section] Combine each pair of sentences by forming a compound sentence. 1. Clients drop off scrap metal. Workers sort it into piles. 2.Adults must buy a ticket. Children get in free. 3.We already have milk. Buy just a half gallon. 4.I am not afraid of snakes. I used to keep one as a pet. 5.A French company began building the Panama Canal in The U.S. took over construction in On Your Own How to combine sentences Creating compound sentences

33 3.We already have milk, so buy just a half gallon. How to combine sentences Creating compound sentences Combine each pair of sentences by forming a compound sentence. Possible Answers 1. Clients drop off scrap metal, and workers sort it into piles. 2.Adults must buy a ticket, but children get in free. 4. I am not afraid of snakes; I used to keep one as a pet. 5.A French company began building the Panama Canal in 1881; however, the U.S. took over construction in 1903.

34 How to combine sentences Creating complex sentences Another way to combine sentences is to form a complex sentence. The audience clappeduntil the entire choir had left. A complex sentence contains one independent clause and one or more subordinate clauses.independent clausesubordinate clauses Independent ClauseSubordinate Clause

35 How to combine sentences Creating complex sentences Complex sentences can be reversible. Notice the addition of the comma after the subordinate clause. the audience clapped.Until the entire choir had left, Independent Clause Subordinate Clause

36 The Littles had too few chairs for all the guests. How to combine sentences Independent clause An independent clause (or main clause) expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself as a sentence. Subject The Littles had too few chairs for all the guests. The audience clapped. Verb Subject Verb An independent clause has a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought. The audience clapped.

37 How to combine sentences Subordinate clause A subordinate clause (or dependent clause) does not express a complete thought and cannot stand by itself as a sentence. Subject until the entire choir had left Verb A subordinate clause has a subject and a verb but does not expresses a complete thought. until the entire choir had left What happened until the choir had left? IIC0066B.jpg

38 who committed the crime. How to combine sentences Creating complex sentences There are three types of subordinate clauses: adjective, adverb, and noun clauses. Each type can replace an ordinary adjective, adverb, or noun. Adjective Gili wants the Adjective Clause bluebicycle.Gili wants the bicyclethat is blue. Adverb I read the newspaper Adverb Clause daily.as I eat breakfast. Noun The detective revealed Noun Clause the culprit.

39 An adjective clause (or phrase) answers the same questions that adjectives answer–which one? what kind? how many? An adverbial clause (or phrase) answers the same questions that adverbs answer–when? where? why? how often? to what extent? in what manner? How to combine sentences Creating complex sentences Here’s another way to think about clauses. A noun clause (or phrase) can be replaced by the words something or someone.

40 How to combine sentences Creating complex sentences Make one sentence into an adjective clause by replacing the subject with who, which, or that. Then, use the adjective clause to provide information about a noun or pronoun that has come before. Many people fear bats.They are usually harmless. Many people fear bats, which are usually harmless. which ^

41 How to combine sentences Creating complex sentences If an adjective clause is not essential to the meaning of the sentence, set it off with commas. If it is essential, no commas are necessary. Many people fear bats, which are usually harmless. NOT ESSENTIAL Are these the bats that are usually harmless or the dangerous ones? ESSENTIAL

42 How to combine sentences Creating complex sentences Turn one sentence into an adverb clause by adding a subordinating conjunction such as after, although, because, if, when, or where.subordinating conjunction If the adverb clause begins a sentence, follow the clause with a comma. I called.I received your message. Before I received your message, I called. I called before I received your message.

43 How to combine sentences Subordinating conjunction A subordinating conjunction shows a relationship between an adverb clause and the word(s) that it modifies. For example, before, once, since, when, and while indicate time. Common Subordinating Conjunctions asbeforesincewhen as ififso thatwhenever as long asonceunlesswhile

44 How to combine sentences Creating complex sentences Turn a sentence into a noun clause by adding a word like that, how, what, who, or whoever to the beginning of the sentence. Insert the clause into another sentence just as you would an ordinary noun. The coach told him.He had advanced to the finals. that he had advanced to the finals.The coach told him The coach told him the news. ORDINARY NOUN The coach told him that he had advanced to the finals. NOUN CLAUSE

45 How to combine sentences Creating complex sentences Dracula is such a frightening character. When you place the noun clause in another sentence, you may have to change or remove some words. This does not help the bat’s reputation. That ^ That Dracula is such a frightening character does not help the bat’s reputation.

46 1.Vera keeps all the cards. People send them to her. (adjective clause) 2.It rained during the fireworks. They still had a good time. (adverb clause) 3.Return this backpack. Return it to the person who left it. (noun clause) Combine the following short sentences by turning the second sentence into an adjective, adverb, or noun clause, as indicated in parentheses. How to combine sentences Creating complex sentences

47 1.Vera keeps all the cards that people send to her. How to combine sentences Creating complex sentences Combine the following short sentences by turning the second sentence into an adjective, adverb, or noun clause, as indicated in parentheses. Possible Answer The sentences have been combined so that the clause that people send to her modifies cards.

48 How to combine sentences Creating complex sentences 2.Although it rained during the fireworks, they still had a good time. Combine the following short sentences by turning the second sentence into an adjective, adverb, or noun clause, as indicated in parentheses. Possible Answer The sentences have been combined so that the clause although it rained during the fireworks modifies had.

49 How to combine sentences Creating complex sentences 3.Return this backpack to whoever left it. Combine the following short sentences by turning the second sentence into an adjective, adverb, or noun clause, as indicated in parentheses. Possible Answer The sentences have been combined so that the clause whoever left it acts as the object of the preposition.

50 How to combine sentences Creating complex sentences [End of Section] Combine each pair of sentences by turning one sentence into an adjective, adverb, or noun clause, as indicated in parentheses. 1. This glue is like spider silk. Spider silk is very strong. (adjective clause) 2.The bridge was built. Before then, drivers had to take a ferry. (adverb clause) 3.We hope. You will visit us again. (noun clause) 4. The coin is very rare. I am holding the coin. (adjective clause). On Your Own

51 Possible Answers How to combine sentences Creating complex sentences Combine each pair of sentences by turning one sentence into an adjective, adverb, or noun clause, as indicated in parentheses. 1. This glue is like spider silk, which is very strong. 2.Before the bridge was built, drivers had to take a ferry. 3.We hope that you will visit us again. 4.The coin that I am holding is very rare.

52 Review A [End of Section] Using all of the sentence-combining skills you have learned, combine each of the following pairs of sentences. 1.The large bird gave a cry. Its cry was noisy. 2.We found out. People have painted for thousands of years. 3.Daryl led the national anthem. Daryl is a trained singer. 4.Drops of rain fell into the fire. The fire let out clouds of steam. 5.Three plumbers have tried to fix the sink. It keeps leaking.

53 Review A Using all of the sentence-combining skills you have learned, combine each of the following pairs of sentences. 1.The large bird gave a noisy cry. 2.We found out that people have painted for thousands of years. 3.Daryl, a trained singer, led the national anthem. 4.Drops of rain fell into the fire, which let out clouds of steam. 5.Three plumbers have tried to fix the sink; however, it keeps leaking. Possible Answers

54 Review B [End of Section] Using all of the sentence-combining skills you have learned, revise and rewrite the following paragraph without changing its original meaning. Stonehenge is in southwestern England. It is a series of stones. They are huge stones. The stones weigh as much as fifty tons each. They were set up over five thousand years ago. They were moved by as many as one thousand people.

55 Review B Using all of the sentence-combining skills you have learned, revise and rewrite the following paragraph without changing its original meaning. Stonehenge is a series of huge stones in southwestern England. Weighing as much as fifty tons each, the stones were set up over five thousand years ago and were moved by as many as one thousand people. Possible Answer

56 The End


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