Presentation on theme: "Advanced Sentence Structure. Clauses A subject and a predicate by themselves make an independent clause. Sentences can contain more than one clause, and."— Presentation transcript:
Clauses A subject and a predicate by themselves make an independent clause. Sentences can contain more than one clause, and more than one type of clause.
Clause types Other types of clauses: dependent, relative Dependent clauses contain subordinate conjunctions Relative clauses contain relative pronouns.
Dependent clauses When I woke up this morning, it was raining. Dependent clauses include a subject and predicate just like an independent clause; however, they begin with a subordinate conjunction, which makes them an incomplete thought.
Subordinate Conjunctions Indicate conditions, such as “because,” “if,” “although,” “in,” etc. At the beginning of dependent (sometimes called subordinate) clauses.
Examples, Although I gave my cat flea medicine, he still scratches himself. When I get tired, I just drink some coffee.
Comma Usage Note that when we begin a sentence with a dependent clause, we separate the dependent and independent clauses with a comma.
Dependent Clause Practice Try writing a sentence that contains a dependent and independent clause.
Relative Clauses “The scarf that I’m wearing today is itchy.” Used to describe nouns Start with “which,” “that,” or “who.” Two types: restrictive and non- restrictive.
Non-Restrictive Relative Clauses Non-Restrictive Relative Clauses give extra information about the noun they are describing. Because they can be taken out of the sentence without affecting the meaning of the sentence, they are placed in commas. Example: “My cat, who is black, is named Loki.”
Restrictive Relative Clauses Restrictive relative clauses give detailed information necessary to the sentence. In this case, we do not use commas to separate this type of relative clause from the rest of the sentence. Example: “Where is the blue binder that I placed here yesterday?”
When to use Which, That, or Who When referring to a person, always use “who.” When referring to an object in a non- restrictive clause, use “which.” When referring to an object in a restrictive clause, use “that.”
Relative Clause Practice Try writing a sentence with a relative clause.
Compound Sentences “I wanted some ice cream, so I got some at the store.” Two independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction and a comma make up a compound sentence.
Coordinating what now? Coordinating Conjunctions: FANBOYS – For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So – Used to combine two independent clauses with a comma.
Examples I wanted to leave, but my cat wanted me to stay at home. She went to the store, and then she went to see a movie.
Conjunction Practice Try writing two independent sentences and combining them with a comma and a coordinating conjunction.
Semicolons “You cannot eat that; it is mine!” Another way to combine two sentences is with semicolons. When using semicolons, we do not need to use a coordinating conjunction.
Examples I like cats; he likes dogs. I went to the store; afterward, I went home.
Conjunctive Adverbs Some words begin independent clauses by themselves as connectors. These words include “however,” “nonetheless,” and “furthermore.” These words are called “Conjunctive Adverbs.” We also place a comma behind these words. These are often used behind semicolons.
Examples I do not like spiders; however, I am very fond of bats. Susan has a demanding job. Furthermore, she's taking two difficult college classes.
Semicolon practice Write two independent clauses and combine them with a semicolon. You may want to use a conjunctive adverb to combine them.
Putting it All Together When I went to his house, I knocked on the door, but no one was home. My friend, who is older than me, has already graduated; however, she still lives nearby.
Putting it All Together When I arrived at his house, the dog, who belonged to my friend Brandon, barked at me, and I smiled and pet it; however, I was not prepared for how sticky his spit was when he started licking my face!
Now you try! Create a sentence that contains at least three of the following: – An independent clause – A dependent clause – A relative clause – A semicolon – A conjunctive adverb – A comma and a coordinating conjunction