Presentation on theme: "CLAUSES ELIZABETH NAVEDO ARBELÁEZ S00069808 CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH AND SPANISH ENGL 360 PROFESSOR: DR. EVELYN LUGO MORALES."— Presentation transcript:
CLAUSES ELIZABETH NAVEDO ARBELÁEZ S00069808 CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH AND SPANISH ENGL 360 PROFESSOR: DR. EVELYN LUGO MORALES
WHAT IS A CLAUSE? A clause is a group of related words that contain a subject and a verb. It is used as a sentence or as part of a sentence. Words and phrases can be put together to make clauses. Example: where are you now V S after we won the game S V Not every clause expresses a complete thought. Example: A sitar is a stringed instrument that resembles a lute. Clause A sitar is a stringed instrument. (complete thought) Clause that resembles a lute (incomplete thought)
INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT CLAUSES An Independent or main clause is a group of words that contain a subject, a predicate, and expresses a complete thought, it stands by itself as a sentence. Example: The message that was inscribed on the stone was not very exciting. A Dependent or Subordinate clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a predicate, but does not express a complete thought and cannot stand by itself as a sentence. Example: The message that was inscribed on the stone was not very exciting.
CLAUSES Adverbial clause is a dependent clause that acts like an adverb and indicates such things as time, place or reason: Example: Although we are getting older, we grow more beautiful each day. Noun clause is a clause that takes the place of a noun and cannot stand on its own; often introduced with words such as: how, if, that, what, whatever, when, whenever, wherever, where, whether, which, whichever, who, whoever, whom, whomever, whose, why. Example: "What the president said was surprising” Adjective clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or a pronoun. It usually follows the word or words it modifies and tells what kind or which one. Example: Amanda is someone whom I admire. The adjective clause modifies the pronoun someone.
RELATIVE CLAUSES Dependent clauses that are essential to the sentence and do not add extra information. Usually starts with a relative pronoun such as who or which, or relative adverb such as where. Example: "The person who finishes first can leave early" (defining), "Texas, where my brother lives, is big" (non-defining) … function as adjective equivalent which is essential to the meaning of the sentence. … define nouns in order to distinguish similar persons or things in order to diminish ambiguity. …. relate to known facts in order to explain something new.
RELATIVE CLAUSES A relative pronoun is a pronoun that introduces a relative clause. It is called a "relative“ pronoun because it "relates" to the word that it modifies. Example: “The person who phoned me last night is my teacher”. In the above example, "who": relates to "person", which it modifies. It introduces the relative clause "who phoned me last night" There are five relative pronouns in English: who, whom, whose, which, that. Who (subject) Whom (object) are generally only for people. Whose is for possession. Which is for things. That can be used for people and things and as subject and object.
RELATIVE CLAUSES Relative adverb is an adverb that relates two sentences. They replace the more formal structure of preposition + which in a relative clause. A relative adverb can be used instead of a relative pronoun plus preposition. This often makes the sentence easier to understand. There are four in English: where, when, wherever, whenever Example: That's the restaurant where we met for the first time. (where = at/in which) I remember the day when we first met. (when = on which) There was a very hot summer the year when he was born. (when = in which) Tell me (the reason) why you were late home. (why = for which, but could replace the whole phrase 'the reason for which')
Related word, part of main clause Relative pronoun + subject (S) Part of relative clause 2nd part of main clause Explanation or rule The manwho (S) has sent me this letter is my friend's brother. The gray sentence is the main clause. The carwhich (S)is over there is one of his three cars. The words in black are the relative pronouns. A friendwhose carwas stolen drives one of his cars now. They refer /relate to the previous word. The moneythat hehad put in was meant for his son. When a preposition is used together with the relative pronoun "that" the preposition is at the end of the relative clause
Related word, part of main clause Relative adverb + subject (S) Part of relative clause 2 nd part of main clause Explanation or rule The placewhere theystole his car was near the hospital. "where" relates to a certain place The timewhen theystole his carwas 9 a.m. "when" relates to a certain time The reasonwhy they stole this old car is not known. "why" relates to a certain reason
RELATIVE CLAUSES Non-defining relative clauses are also called "non-restrictive relative clauses” is a relative clause that adds information but is not completely necessary; set off from the sentence with a comma or commas. Example: "The boy, who had a chocolate bar in his hand, was still hungry” Reduced relative clause also called "participial relative clause“ is a construction similar to a relative clause, but containing a participle instead of a finite verb; this construction is possible only under certain circumstances. Example: "The woman sitting on the bench is my sister", "The people arrested by the police have been released"
FRAGMENT AND PHRASES Fragment is an incomplete piece of a sentence used alone as a complete sentence; a fragment does not contain a complete thought; fragments are common in normal speech but unusual (inappropriate) in formal writing. Example: "When's her birthday? - In December", "Will they come? – Probably not" Phrase is two or more words that have a single function and form part of a sentence; phrases can be noun, adjective, adverb, verb, or prepositional. A phrase is a group of related words that do not express a complete thought and do not have a subject and predicate pair. Example: leaving behind the dog smashing into a fence