2Compound Sentences What is a compound sentence? A compound sentence consists of two or more simple sentences or clauses put together.Of course, you must remember that a simple sentence contains one subject and one predicate.A clause is a group of words containing a verb and its subject (See page 524).What is the difference between a clause and a phrase?A phrase does not have a subject and a verb.A clause that can stand by itself as a sentence is a main clause or independent clause.A clause that cannot stand by itself as sentence is a subordinate or dependent clause (often introduced by a subordinating conjunction. AAWUUBIS!)
3A compound is a pure substance that is formed by the combination of atoms of or more elements by either transfer or by sharing of electrons.Connect with your understanding of science…
4Edit Note 1 1. She doesn’t have much money but she wants to help you. 2. Always have someone with you when you swim or you may find yourself without help when you need it.Always have someone with you when you swim, or you may find yourself without help when you need it.
53. The students arrived on time but left before the teacher came in. Commas are not used between two verbs, two subjects, two complements, or two objects joined by a coordinating conjunction.Georgetown, for example, has eliminated one-third of its graduate programs in the past five years and recently decided to close its dental school. [compound verb]4. The symbols are clear in the story and they clearly develop the theme.The symbols are clear in the story, and they clearly develop the theme.
6Short clauses…what to do? He hit the ball well but he ran toward third base.John arrived early but Paul was late.Contending that the coordinating conjunction is adequate separation, some writers will leave out the comma in a sentence with short, balanced independent.If there is ever any doubt, however, use the comma, as it is always correct in this situation.
7Edit note 2 Introductory dependent clauses, relative pronouns and subordinate conjunctions. Introductory dependent clauses are set off by commas.Relative pronouns: Who, whose, whom, which and that.Why are they relative pronouns?They introduce adjective clauses.What is an adjective clause?Adjective clause = modifies a noun or pronounRelative pronouns refer to a word in the main clause and are used in place of that word.
8Subordinate conjunctions Dependent clauses AKA subordinate clauses. A subordinate clause—also called a dependent clause—will begin with a subordinate conjunction or a relative pronoun and will contain both a subject and a verb. This combination of words will not form a complete sentence. It will instead make a reader want additional information to finish the thought.Subordinate conjunctionsRelative pronounsWhoWhoseWhomWhich thatAAAWWUBBIS!After, although, as, when, while, until, because, before, if, sinceSome others…Unless, during, whatever, even though, in order to, though, whenever.
9Subordination emphasizes the idea in the main clause more than the one in the subordinate clause. Remember this important point: A subordinate clause cannot stand alone as a sentence because it does not provide a complete thought. The reader is left wondering, "So what happened?"1. Until we found the source of the fire everyone was searching nervously.Until we found the source of the fire, everyone was searching nervously.2. Because everyone seemed satisfied with the answer we moved on to a new subject.Because everyone seemed satisfied with the answer, we moved on to a new subject.Subordinating conjunctionSubordinating conjunction
113. Isabel Allende is a writer who uses magical realism in her novels. Why no comma?No introductory dependent clause!
12Edit Note 3 – Restrictive (essential clauses) and commas A restrictive clause points out the person or thing it modifies. Without the restrictive clause, the meaning of the sentence is confused or incomplete.Restrictive clauses are not set off from the rest of the sentence by commas.
13Restrictive = Essential A restrictive element is just part of a sentence you can’t get rid of because it specifically restricts the noun. Here's an example:Desserts that contain chocolate please Squiggly.The words “that contain” restrict the kind of desserts we're talking about.Without those words, the meaning of the sentence would change.Without them, we'd be saying that all desserts please Squiggly, not just the ones with chocolate.With thanks to Grammar Girl:
14Not necessary? Give it a “hug.” On the other hand, a non-restrictive element is something that can be left off without changing the meaning of the sentence. A nonrestrictive element is simply additional information.Chocolate desserts, which are his favorites, please Squiggly.Leaving out the words “which are his favorites” doesn’t change the meaning of the sentence. With or without the words “which are his favorites,” we know that chocolate desserts please Squiggly. Nonrestrictive elements are surrounded by commas.
15It is safe to throw out the witches! If you think of the Wicked Witch (Which) of the West from The Wizard of Oz, you know it’s okay to throw her out. You won’t change the meaning of the sentence without the which phrase. So, you can throw out the which (or witch) clause, commas and all.
16That and Which (pg. 710)Use THAT to introduce restrictive clauses and the word WHICH to introduce nonrestrictive clauses.Participial phrases that identify or point out the thing or person they modify are restrictive.The woman standing on the chair is the director (Without the phrase, the sentence loses its specific meaning.)The paper attached to the handle gives the directions for using the sharpener. (The phrase identifies the paper.)
17Quiz 1 – 4 ReviewRemember the differences between restrictive and nonrestrictive clauses.A NONRESTRICTIVE CLAUSE is a dependent clause that presents added information that is not needed for the meaning of the sentence. IT IS SET OFF BY A COMMA OR COMMAS.NON RESTRICTIVE = NON ESSENTIALLet’s practice: Write a sentence with a nonrestrictive clause that comes at the end of a sentence. Punctuate correctly.I have a toy, which is broken. Correct?Without which is broken, the meaning of the sentence is incomplete.
18Quiz 1 – 4 ReviewLet’s try this again.Let’s practice: Write a sentence with a nonrestrictive clause that comes at the end of a sentence. Punctuate correctly.I read a book, that was very boring, for my english class.This sentence is SO WRONG ON SO MANY LEVELS! ;)How can we fix it?I read a book that was unbelievably exciting for my English class.
19So for next week’s quiz (44 points)… Review commas with conjunctions.Commas with introductory, restrictive and nonrestrictive clauses.For Edit note 5 – review the use of commas with prepositional phrases introducing a sentence. See 11.6 and 2.13 if you want to review the prepositional phrase.