Presentation on theme: "Clauses, sentence fragments and comma splices"— Presentation transcript:
1 Clauses, sentence fragments and comma splices Grammar Workshop IIClauses, sentence fragments and comma splicesTaken from Purdue Owl
2 Why is Grammar important? Look at the following examples. Which is the more correct sentence?1. Let’s eat, Tweety! 2. Let’s eat Tweety!These two sentences have drastically different meanings. The first implies that you are having a meal with Tweety, while the second implies that the cute little bird is the meal. Sylvester might be more inclined to use the latter.
3 Example # 21. Celebration Pavilion, Queen Elizabeth Park 2. Celebration Pavilion Queen Elizabeth ParkEven if you are not writing a complete sentence, a comma can be very important in purveying the right meaning. The first example shows you that Celebration Pavilion is in Queen Elizabeth Park. There is a clear separation between the two names. The second example isn’t quite so clear; it could just as easily be Celebration Pavilion Queen, Elizabeth Park. That’s not the same at all.
4 Example #31. Woman, without her man, is nothing. 2 .Woman, without her, man is nothing.Once again, we see the importance of placing the commas in the right places. The first example is saying that a woman is nothing without her man, while the second is saying that mankind is nothing without women. These are two entirely different meanings and it’s the comma placement that determines which is which.
5 WHAT IS A CLAUSE?A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb.
6 Independent ClauseAn independent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and verb and expresses a complete thought. An independent clause is a sentence.Ex. Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz.
7 Dependent ClauseA dependent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and verb but does not express a complete thought.A dependent clause cannot be a sentence. Often a dependent clause is marked by a dependent marker word.Ex. When Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz (What happened when he studied? The thought is incomplete.)
8 Dependent Marker WordA dependent marker word is a word added to the beginning of an independent clause that makes it into a dependent clause.Ex. When Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz, it was very noisy.Some common dependent markers are:after, although, as, as if, because, before, even if, even though, if, in order to, since, though, unless, until, whatever, when, whenever, whether, and while.
9 Connecting dependent and independent clauses There are two types of words that can be used as connectors at the beginning of an independent clause: coordinating conjunctions and independent marker words.
10 1. Coordinating Conjunction The seven coordinating conjunctions used as connecting words at the beginning of an independent clause are: and, but, for, or, nor, so, and yet.When the second independent clause in a sentence begins with a coordinating conjunction, a comma is needed before the coordinating conjunction:Ex. Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz, but it was hard to concentrate because of the noise.
11 2. Independent Marker Word An independent marker word is a connecting word used at the beginning of an independent clause. These words can always begin a sentence that can stand alone. When the second independent clause in a sentence has an independent marker word, a semicolon is needed before the independent marker word.Ex. Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz; however, it was hard to concentrate because of the noise.Some common independent markers are: also, consequently, furthermore, however, moreover, nevertheless, and therefore.
13 Comma SplicesA comma splice is the use of a comma between two independent clauses. You can usually fix the error by changing the comma to a period and therefore making the two clauses into two separate sentences, by changing the comma to a semicolon, or by making one clause dependent by inserting a dependent marker word in front of it.Incorrect: I like this class, it is very interesting.Correct: I like this class. It is very interesting.(or) I like this class; it is very interesting.(or) I like this class, and it is very interesting.(or) I like this class because it is very interesting.(or) Because it is very interesting, I like this class.
14 Fused SentencesFused sentences happen when there are two independent clauses not separated by any form of punctuation. This error is also known as a run-on sentence. The error can sometimes be corrected by adding a period, semicolon, or colon to separate the two sentences.Incorrect: My professor is intelligent I've learned a lot from her.Correct: My professor is intelligent. I've learned a lot from her.(or) My professor is intelligent; I've learned a lot from her.(or) My professor is intelligent, and I've learned a lot from her.(or) My professor is intelligent; moreover, I've learned a lot from her.
15 Sentence FragmentsSentence fragments happen by treating a dependent clause or other incomplete thought as a complete sentence. You can usually fix this error by combining it with another sentence to make a complete thought or by removing the dependent marker.Incorrect: Because I forgot the exam was today.Correct: Because I forgot the exam was today, I didn't study.(or) I forgot the exam was today.
17 Quick Guide to Comma Usage Use commas to separate independent clauses when they are joined by any of these seven coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet.Use commas after introductory a) clauses, b) phrases, or c) words that come before the main clause.Use a pair of commas in the middle of a sentence to set off clauses, phrases, and words that are not essential to the meaning of the sentence. Use one comma before to indicate the beginning of the pause and one at the end to indicate the end of the pause.Do not use commas to set off essential elements of the sentence, such as clauses beginning with that (relative clauses). That clauses after nouns are always essential. That clauses following a verb expressing mental action are always essential.
18 Quick Guide to Comma Usage Use commas to separate three or more words, phrases, or clauses written in a series.Use commas to separate two or more coordinate adjectives that describe the same noun. Be sure never to add an extra comma between the final adjective and the noun itself or to use commas with non-coordinate adjectives.Use a comma near the end of a sentence to separate contrasted coordinate elements or to indicate a distinct pause or shift.Use commas to set off phrases at the end of the sentence that refer back to the beginning or middle of the sentence. Such phrases are free modifiers that can be placed anywhere in the sentence without causing confusion.
19 Quick Guide to Comma Usage Use commas to set off all geographical names, items in dates (except the month and day), addresses (except the street number and name), and titles in names.Use a comma to shift between the main discourse and a quotation.Use commas wherever necessary to prevent possible confusion or misreading.