2 IMPERATIVE to + INFINITIVE Commands…When we report requests, orders or commands, or other kinds of persuasion, we often use the pattern:ask / tell somebodyto do somethingIMPERATIVE to + INFINITIVE
3 Commands… “Wake me up early, Dad!” Michael said. becomes: Michael told his dad to wake him up early.“Please let me watch the match, Mum,” Anne said.Anne begged her mum to let her watch the match.
4 Commands…Here are common verbs which use this pattern (ask / tell somebody to do something):advise – ask – beg – command – forbid –instruct – invite – order – persuade – remind- teach – tell – urge - warn
5 Negative orders, requests etc. NOT goes before to + infinitive“Please, don’t do it,” she said to him.becomes:She begged him not to do it.“Don’t tell lies,” he said.He taught us not to tell lies.
6 Reporting offers, refusals, etc. We often use a verb which describes the speaker’s intention.(Offer) “Can I help you?” She offered to help me.(Refusal) “I won’t do it.” He refused to do it.Verbs in this group: agree – promise – swear – threaten
7 SuggestionsWhen we report suggestions, we can use suggest + noun clause with or without that.“Why not postpone the meeting?”He suggested (that) we postpone the meeting.He suggested (that) we should postpone the meeting.
8 Complete the sentences in reported speech Example:“Let me help you.”My friend offered ________.My friend offered to help me.
9 “Why don’t we go for a walk?” She suggested ___________She suggested (that) we (should) go for a walk.“I wasn’t anywhere near the scene of the crime.”The accused claimed _________The accused claimed (that) he hadn’t been anywhere near the scene of the crime.
10 “This spot is the best place for a picnic.” My father said ______________My father said (that) that spot was the best place for a picnic.“Can you answer the phone? I’m having a shower.”He asked his son ______________He asked his son if he could answer (OR: to answer) the phone because he was having a shower.
11 “I gave you my homework last week.” The boy insisted _____________The boy insisted (that) he had given me his homework the week before.“If I were you, I wouldn’t drink so much.”He advised his friend _____________He advised his friend not to drink so much.
12 “I won’t help you because you didn’t help me.” A) Joan said ____________B) Joan refused ___________A) Joan said (that) she wouldn’t help me because I hadn’t helped her.B) Joan refused to help me because I hadn’t helped her.
13 “I’ll bring it back tomorrow.” (A) He said _____________(B) He promised ____________(A) He said (that) he would bring it back the next day.(B) He promised to bring it back the next day.
14 Reported Speech: Questions When we report questions, we do not follow the normal question order. Instead, we use the word order of a statement.“Can I leave the room?” becomes:I asked if I could leave the room.“Where are you from?” becomes:She asked where I was from.
15 Yes/No Questions We use if or whether + noun clause “Are you happy here?” she asked. – becomes:She asked me if / whether I was happy there.“Does he live in a large flat?” she wondered. – becomes:She wondered if / whether he lived in a large flat.
16 We must use whether (not if) when we are asking someone to make a choice: “Do you want coffee or tea?” they asked.They asked me whether I wanted coffee or tea.We must use whether with the phrase or not. (whether … or not)“Are you going to tell me the answer or not?” she said.She asked him whether he was going to tell her the answer or not.
17 Wh-QuestionsWhen we report these questions we use the wh-word: who, where, why, what, when, which or how, how far, how long, how much, how many…“Who built that castle?” she wanted to know. She wanted to know who had built that castle.
18 Wh-Questions “Where did you go this summer?” He inquired where we had gone that summer.“How is Johnny getting on at school?” she asked. She asked how Johnny was getting on at school.
19 Change into indirect questions “Can I have some more pocket money?”The boy asked ______The boy asked if /whether/ he could have some more pocket money.“Where were you born?”She asked him _________She asked him where he had been born.
20 “How far is the stadium?” He wanted to know __________He wanted to know how far the stadium was / how far it was to the stadium.“Are you still living in London?”She asked ________She asked (me) if /whether/ I was still living in London.
21 “Do you work in the central branch or in the provinces?” She asked him __________She asked him whether he worked in the central branch or in the provinces.“Are you going to give me the money or not?”She wanted to know ______________She wanted to know whether I was going to give her the money or not.
22 “Who bought the Picasso painting?” He wondered _________He wondered who had bought the Picasso painting.“Did he bring the book back or not?”I didn’t know __________I didn’t know whether he had brought the book back or not.